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Hayek - currency competition and European Monetary Union. As a young student I read The Road to the lesson by toni cade bambara Serfdom. It was the first book written by Hayek I came across, and it has left a deep and lasting influence on me. Only eleven years after the Hitler regime and my paper the war I suddenly started to understand the interdependence between totalitarianism and economic policy. Since then I have read most of Hayek's publications.
Many left their marks, only to mention the impressive The Constitution of Liberty. But, perhaps more than anything else, it was the perception of competition as a discovery process which has shaped my thinking. This approach is of extreme relevance for cade bambara theme, economics but, goes far beyond this. Effect And Cause Essay Topics! Related to this discovery is pretence of the lesson cade theme knowledge as a permanent danger for societies. All those in public office responsible for making decisions should never forget this message. Against this background you can imagine that it is a great honour for me to be invited to give this lecture on the occasion of Hayek's 100 th birthday. Buy Research! Even more so as the cade bambara essay, invitation came from the Institute of virtues of leadership Economic Affairs , an institution devoted to the study and propagation of liberal ideas - to the idea of liberty. The Lesson Cade Bambara Theme Essay! I accepted immediately, not reflecting the obvious time constraints. It was the Institute of Economic Affairs which in 1976 published Hayek's Choice in Currency: A Way to Stop Inflation. I chose the subject for buy research papers online cheap gate essay, my lecture for the following reasons.
First of all because I might have some comparative advantage in the lesson cade essay, a subject related to monetary economics. Having joined the Executive Board of the European Central Bank, the relations of Hayek's ideas on currency offer a special kind of cpm homework help library interest. And, finally, it was the publication mentioned which brought me in personal contact with Hayek. Fascinated (but, to indicate already, not convinced) by the approach which was out of line with anything discussed in mainstream monetary theory at that time, I wished to include this paper in a reader on monetary policy issues I was preparing. I proposed to put in front of the text a quote by the lesson by toni bambara theme Hayek Inflation is made by government and its agents. Nobody else can do anything about and cause essay topics it. But, we could not agree on the translation of the the lesson by toni cade, word government into German. After an extended correspondence we finally came to the conclusion over the phone that this quote should remain, but not be translated  It only comes home to us fully how long and best essay writing service 700 fruitful Hayek's career was when we realise that his rightly renowned monograph on the denationalisation of money was published some 60 years after his pioneering contribution to the theory of intertemporal equilibrium in Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv  in 1928.
The monograph has to be seen against the background of decades of worldwide inflation. Hayek himself mentioned the great German inflation of 1923. After the second World War, prices had moved worldwide only in one direction. In the course of the 1960s booming US Federal Government expenditure, which was partly associated with the Vietnam War, led to a sustained period of strong growth in nominal aggregate demand. This, in turn, led to an increase in inflation in the United States . In 1969 the inflation rate was already up to bambara theme almost 6%, after having been less than 2% at the start of the decade. Given the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates, the inflationary pressures emanating from the United States spread out to other areas of the world, including Europe . Images! The strain in the Bretton Woods system became apparent in by toni cade, the late 1960s. In 1973 the system finally collapsed. The problems created were magnified by the increase in oil and commodity prices in 1973. This led to soaring inflation. 
A few years later the industrial world was caught in a combination of high inflation and substantially increased unemployment. The policy that had brought the world to such an unfavourable conjuncture, and that could be characterised by a belief that money does not matter and a hubris of excessive reliance on demand management, had ostensibly failed. Economics! As Robert Lucas commented: This is the legacy of stagflation: a general loss of confidence, whether warranted or not, in the formerly accepted framework guiding discretionary economic management  Hayek's view about these developments becomes clear from, for example, an excerpt of his Nobel Lecture, delivered in December 1974: Economists are, at this moment, called upon to say how to extricate the cade theme, free world from the serious threat of cpm homework help accelerating inflation which, it must be admitted, have been brought about by policies that the majority of economists recommended or even urged governments to pursue. We have indeed at the moment little cause for the lesson by toni cade theme essay, pride: as a profession we made a mess of things. He expanded upon this in 1976:  practically all governments of history have used their exclusive power to issue money in order to online cheap the fiftieth gate defraud and plunder the people. It was against the lesson cade bambara this background that Hayek proposed his radical solution. It called for no less than the complete abolition of the government's monopoly over the issue of fiat money, leaving the way open for library, comprehensive competition in its supply by the private sector. In his Hobart Paper Special No.
70, he spelt out his philosophy with respect to free competition in cade essay, the supply of online economics money: The purpose of this scheme is to impose upon existing monetary and financial agencies a very much needed discipline by making it impossible for any of the lesson them, or for any length of time, to issue a kind of money substantially less reliable and useful than the money of any other. Papers And Happiness! As soon as the public became familiar with the the lesson by toni bambara, new possibilities, any deviations from the straight path of providing an honest money would at once lead to the rapid displacement of the offending currency by others. And the individual countries, being deprived of the various dodges by which they are now able temporarily to library images conceal the effects of their actions by 'protecting' their currency, would be constrained to keep the value of their currencies tolerably stable (p. 125). Although his proposal was not implemented, his contribution kindled a lively and the lesson by toni bambara far-reaching debate on the role of government in the monetary system, a debate that addressed the choice between a free-market monetary regime and government management of the monetary system via a central bank. The proposal was so profound and radical in its conception that some leading advocates of a laissez-faire approach to most aspects of economic life (Milton Friedman, for example) were put on the defensive. As it happened, Hayek also held some pretty strong views on Monetary Union in Europe, an cpm homework help library images, idea which was still only in the lesson by toni theme essay, a rather embryonic stage when he commented on it in get someone write virtues of leadership, 1978: his own scheme of competing currencies seemed to him . both preferable and more practicable than the Utopian scheme of introducing a new European currency, which would ultimately only the lesson essay have the buy research papers essay, effect of more deeply entrenching the source and root of all monetary evil, the government monopoly on the issue and the lesson cade control of money (p. 126). 2. Summary presentation and assessment of Hayek's proposal for competing currencies. The proposal put forward by Hayek, that is, full competition between private issuers of currency, is an extremely interesting concept.
It relates to the debate on the viability of unregulated banking and to the literature on the historical experience with free banking.  The basic idea seems to be as follows: creating the get someone my paper virtues, possibility of the lesson theme banks issuing currency would open the way to competition. Banks could issue non-interest bearing certificates and buy research papers online cheap gate open cheque accounts on the basis of the lesson by toni their own distinct registered trade mark. Different banks would issue different certificates, that is currencies. The currencies of write different banks would trade at variable exchange rates. Competition and profit maximisation would lead to an equilibrium in which only banks paying a competitive return on liabilities could survive. Since currency corresponds here to non-interest-bearing certificates, the crucial requirement is the maintenance of the value of the currency. So, in equilibrium, only currencies guaranteeing a stable purchasing power would exist.
Banks that failed to build up such a reputation for their currency would lose customers and be driven out of the lesson cade bambara theme business. Hayek was of the cpm homework help library images, opinion that his proposal would, if implemented, contribute to the overall stability of the economy. In his monograph he wrote: The past instability of the market economy is the consequence of the exclusion of the most important regulator of the market mechanism, money, from itself being regulated by the market process (Denationalisation of Money - the Argument Refined, p. 192; Hobart Paper Special, No. 70, 2 nd (Extended) Edition, IEA (1978); italics in the original). Let me now examine the characteristics of the theme essay, equilibrium envisaged in buy research papers online cheap moderation and happiness, Hayek's proposal. Cade Theme Essay!  The marginal costs of cpm homework library producing and issuing a currency (in the form of notes and coin) are rather low (close to zero).  In the context of the type of competition envisaged by Hayek, the nominal rate of interest would be driven (close) to zero. If the real rate of interest required by lenders to lend funds to borrowers were positive (say 3%), equilibrium in the loan market would require that lenders would have to be rewarded by a rate of deflation equal to this real rate.
This would produce an outcome that has been advocated as a normative rule for inflation by Friedman in the past, that is, in a situation in which money is non-interest bearing, the optimal rate of inflation should be set equal to the negative of the real rate of interest. This is by toni cade theme, analogous, in this context, to the well-known correlation between free competition and efficiency (Pareto optimality). Hayek's privatisation proposal would, initially at least, involve a multiplicity of privately issued moneys. If these failed to trade at par, which is not unlikely given that the financial health of the different issuers is likely to be different, then it is also likely that a multiplicity of exchange rates will also emerge between these privately issued currencies. And Cause Topics! So long as there is the lesson bambara essay, no restriction imposed on the holding of the different currencies, those that are likely to online cheap depreciate in the lesson theme essay, value would, according to Hayek's logic, be driven out of existence leading to a situation in which only currencies with stable values would remain in existence. Hayek believed that such competition between currencies was a discovery process, which would lead to a stable non-inflationary outcome. In this respect, it may be best to effect let Hayek speak for himself which I do by by toni cade theme quoting from his Denationalisation of buy essay cheap economics Money: Indeed, if, as I am convinced, the main advantage of the market order is the lesson by toni, that prices will convey to the acting individuals the relevant information, only the constant observation of the course of reviews 700 current prices of particular commodities can provide information on by toni bambara, the direction in which more or less money ought to be spent.
Money is essay, not a tool of policy that can achieve particular foreseeable results by control of its quantity. By Toni Cade Theme Essay! But it should be part of the papers cheap moderation, self- steering mechanism by which individuals are constantly induced to adjust their activities to circumstances on which they have information only through the abstract signals of the lesson cade bambara prices. It should be a serviceable link in the process that communicates the effects of and cause topics events never wholly known to anybody and that is required to the lesson by toni cade theme maintain an order in which the cpm homework help library, plans of participating persons match (p. 192/193). Nevertheless, despite Hayek's claims for this discovery process, most economists would argue that free competition with respect to money couldn't guarantee either a stable or an efficient outcome. This is the essay, fundamental point. In order to papers online cheap and happiness try to understand and assess Hayek's proposal, it is essential to take a closer look at by toni bambara essay, money and its role in the economy.
This is best done by, as it were, first breaking money up into essay, its constituent functions. The classic textbook treatment of the functions of money is still valid: money fulfils three functions, namely that of (i) a unit of account, (ii) a means of payment and (iii) a store of value. The use of money as a unit of account is, arguably, the most basic monetary function. It is the numeraire, that is the unit for quoting prices, for drawing funds, for negotiating contracts, and for performing economic calculations. In this regard, money is a basic convention of society, such as the language and the standards for measurement. This seems to be a very Hayek-like way of looking at money. Indeed, the fundamental problem in economics for Hayek is that of co-ordinating the plans of many independent individuals. Competition through the market system leads to such a co-ordination. Individuals, acting in their own self-interest, respond to price signals.
Prices, in turn, reflect the information available in society. Cade Bambara Theme! Price signals allow the transmission of previously unknown information in the most synthetic and relevant way for the purpose of get someone write economic calculus. Now, prices - impersonal signals that provide for an extensive social division of labour - are expressed in terms of money. Irving Fisher coined the term money yardstick.  The unit of account represented by the respective unit of money (that is the euro, the US dollar, the Japanese yen, etc.) is a metric or measuring tape. With inflation or deflation, the measuring tape keeps changing all the time. The unit of by toni bambara theme account, as represented by money, becomes elastic and of uncertain dimension at any one time and of even more uncertain dimension over extended periods of time into the future.
Inflation or deflation, therefore, means that the common unit-of-account language, or, say money language, for which the unit of account provides the foundations, is changing all the time. And uncertain inflation, which tends to accompany high inflation, means that the buy research papers cheap moderation, unit of the lesson bambara theme account is changing in uncertain ways. This impairs the efficiency of the best essay writing service 700, common money language and, therefore, communication and the lesson bambara essay co-ordination in the economy. Its undependability impairs the meeting of minds between borrowers and lenders and get someone other transactors; it impairs economic calculation and co-ordination ( Greenfield and Yeager, I983)  . One of these authors (Yeager, 1983)  invites his readers to consider how difficult constructing a house would be (ordering and fitting together the components, appliances, and all the rest) if the unit of the lesson bambara theme essay length, the metre or the foot, kept changing and accordingly were perceived by different persons to have different sizes. Effect And Cause Topics! Consider how preposterous it would be for the length of the metre to fluctuate according to supply and demand in the market for metre sticks.
Yet our dollar suffers from a comparable absurdity - or a worse one, in view of the the lesson bambara essay, associated macroeconomic disorders. Money used as a unit of account has characteristics of a public good. Given the unit-of-account function, the medium-of-exchange and store-of-value functions have traditionally, but not exclusively, been supplied by private enterprise. Just as stable money is of crucial importance for a stable price level in a macroeconomic context, a stable price level is of equal significance for the efficient performance of money in a microeconomic context. A stable price level is, in principle, of of leadership central importance in ensuring that the the lesson by toni bambara theme, three famous microeconomic functions which money provides are allowed to operate with maximum efficiency  . From the point of view of the public involvement in get someone write, the economy, the unit of account is cade bambara essay, of the greatest importance. Efficient co-ordination in the economy cannot occur unless the buy research cheap moderation, various agents involved (that is virtually everybody) speak the same money language. The institution that allows them to do so is money itself, but more specifically the unit-of-account function of the lesson theme essay money. The decentralised plans of hundreds of library millions of consumers and millions of producers and distributors cannot mesh harmoniously in the aggregate if this common money language, as encapsulated in the lesson cade bambara theme, the unit-of-account function of money, is effect topics, missing.
The efficiency of cade bambara this language in performing this vital co-ordination role depends crucially on whether the unit of account always means the buy essay online cheap economics, same thing to different individuals both at one and the same moment and over the lesson bambara theme essay, time. A necessary condition for it to mean the same thing is write my paper, that price stability prevails both at any moment in time and with a credible commitment that it will continue to prevail into the indefinite future. From this point of view, the commitment to by toni cade essay maintaining price stability is like the standardisation of units of measurement. It is not difficult to imagine problems in the Hayek proposal arising from the inherent dynamics behind the discovery process, which would characterise competition between banks in the supply of currency. There are many questions left unanswered by Hayek about how the help library, discovery process would work in practice. . How would the by toni cade bambara essay, economy function during this discovery process? Since bad issuers are, according to the theory, driven out by the fact that they have recourse to inflationary issuance, this suggests that the discovery process would itself be characterised by inflation. Furthermore, if, say, a single stable currency did initially emerge from the cpm homework help images, discovery process, how could one be sure that, having established a monopoly, that the private issuer would not then, in a time-inconsistent fashion that has become all too familiar under politically-dependent central banks, start to the lesson bambara engage in inflationary over-issue so as to maximise seigniorage? And even if a few issuers were to survive, how could one be sure that the resulting oligopoly situation would not result in collusion and/or instabilities? Another potential problem with the Hayek proposal is that the real rate of interest would tend to vary across the business cycle in response to the short-run pressures of supply and demand for loans and so too, according to effect essay topics his scheme, would the the lesson by toni essay, rate of effect and cause topics deflation.
And, of course, a steady rate of deflation would only emerge if the whole private sector discovery process is itself stable, which any reasonable person might be permitted to doubt. It would therefore appear that the outcome earnestly desired by Hayek, a money of stable value, would not be achieved in practice by his own proposal of competing currencies. In a situation in the lesson cade, which money were to be issued by many different issuers as in Hayek's proposal and, either because of over-issuing by essay writing service reviews some agents or because of poor investment decisions, these issues failed to trade at by toni, parity, then many different numeraires could emerge. Get Someone Write My Paper Of Leadership! In principle, there could, in the end, be as many numeraires as there are issuers. In the presence of many numeraires or, more meaningfully, in the absence of a single numeraire, financial communication, based on the common money language which would be provided by the lesson bambara a single numeraire, would degenerate.
This would probably result in very poor co-ordination in the economy, with the efficiency of the decentralised decision-making of best service reviews firms and households, which is the hallmark of capitalist economies, being jeopardised and the productive potential of the economy being gravely endangered. Cade Bambara! The purely private provision of a public good (the unit-of-account function of money) would, in buy research cheap moderation and happiness, this case, be sub-optimal since private issuers cannot easily underpin the single numeraire. Nor do they have an incentive to do so since they cannot capture the vast social benefits of the common monetary language provided by the unit-of-account function of money. There are further issues that any proposal in the spirit of Hayek would have to confront. First, the use of the lesson cade theme money in transactions makes it subject to network externalities. Network externalities, in turn, may inhibit free competition and may make it difficult, if not impossible, to dislodge an incumbent issuer who has resorted to inflationary issuance. In other words, networking externalities would inhibit Hayek's discovery process from working as he envisaged it.
Network externalities also provide a rationale for regulation. Second, the assumption of complete, symmetric and free information implicitly assumed in the Hayek proposal does not apply to banking. The remark is equally valid in terms of banking activities (for example, a fundamental activity in banking is the essay writing service reviews 700, evaluation of the creditworthiness of borrowers) and banks themselves (the special nature of the balance sheets of banks makes their valuation and risk assessment particularly difficult). In the absence of symmetric information, important issues of moral hazard, adverse selection and systemic stability become relevant.  Networking externalities therefore mean that there is no guarantee that new entrants into the market for supplying money would be able to dislodge the incumbent issuer(s) if these resorted to inflationary issuance, given the the lesson by toni cade bambara theme essay, inertia that is an inherent part of phenomena subject to networking effects such as currencies. In any case, why should people be willing to believe the claims of buy research cheap the fiftieth any potential new entrant that its currency will, unlike that of the incumbent(s), turn out to be stable? In my opinion, there are too many unanswered questions for Hayek's proposal for currency competition to be a viable candidate for society searching for a stable monetary system. Furthermore, it is very unlikely that the kind of uncertainty about future prices, which Hayek wanted to banish with his proposal (..a money of stable value is the lesson by toni bambara essay, really the best we can hope for.), would be the outcome if his proposal were to and cause essay topics be implemented. Hayek's discovery process could, on the contrary, entail substantial costs in practice. According to theme essay his own logic of free competition in privately-issued currencies, the nominal interest rate would be driven to online cheap zero with, as already explained, deflation being the outcome. Hayek's proposal would not therefore deliver what it seems to promise, namely price stability.
Under his proposal, there would still be uncertainty about the future price level. Under Hayek's scheme, market forces would determine the relative values of the different competing currencies. In other words, the exchange rates between the bambara, competing currencies would float freely. People would not want to hold on to the currency of an issuer that was expected to depreciate relative to essay service 700 one that was expected to hold its value in terms of purchasing power over goods and services. Therefore, good money that maintained its purchasing power would drive out the depreciation- and inflation-prone bad money. However, it is not inconceivable that competing private issuer would decide to collude by fixing the relative values of the lesson cade bambara essay their currencies. They would do this be agreeing to intervene mutually whenever any of the currencies in question came under pressure in the market for these currencies.
This would be easier to do, and would be more likely to succeed, if there were only a few issuers left after the writing reviews 700, Hayekian discovery process has reached some equilibrium state. Although this could be the outcome in a Hayek world of competing private currencies, it would clearly not be appreciated by Hayek himself. This is because, if some arrangement were to be arrived at by private issuers to counter the the lesson cade essay, tendency for the values of the different moneys to fluctuate against each other, then the bad money would begin to drive out the good money, the buy essay economics, exact opposite of what Hayek himself espoused. In other words, Gresham 's Law would, most likely, start to apply. As Hayek himself put it: If the law makes two kinds of money perfect substitutes for the payment of the lesson by toni cade essay debts and forces creditors to accept a coin of smaller content of gold in online gate, the place of one with a larger content, debtors will, of cade course, pay only in the former and service 700 find a more profitable use for the substance of the latter  . And: ( Gresham 's Law) is not false, but it applies only if a fixed rate of exchange between the different forms of money is enforced (italics in original  ). The bad (i.e., over-issued and bambara essay inflation-prone) money would start to drive out the good (i.e., well-managed and maintaining stable purchasing power) money. More of the bad money would be produced at the expense of the good money and essay topics inflation would accelerate. In principle, Hayek's proposal also works with national currencies produced monopolistically by the lesson by toni essay central banks provided the currencies in question are convertible and essay writing service can be freely exchanged against each other on foreign exchange markets. In such settings, good national currencies will tend to increase in the lesson cade, importance relative to bad, inflation-prone, national currencies. This naturally constrains the ability of national governments to use their exclusive power to issue money in order to defraud and plunder the people. (op. cit.). In this context, I think it is get someone write my paper virtues, fair to say that the widespread use of the Deutschmark, for the lesson cade bambara theme essay, example, as an international investment currency is symptomatic of the enduring success of the Bundesbank in maintaining, in cpm homework library images, relative terms, the internal purchasing power of the Deutschmark.
However, as long as national currencies remain legal tender only the lesson by toni cade theme within their own national boundaries, the scope for buy research online, good national currencies to drive out bad national currencies may not be as complete as in the Hayek world of competing private currencies where none of these currencies has the status of legal tender. In other words, Hayek's competition between currencies goes beyond the limited competition we have seen on foreign exchange markets between national currencies. If this limited competition between national currencies is not sufficient to constrain domestic monetary policy not to the lesson cade bambara theme essay engage in excessive monetary creation, then a government may decide to tie its hands further by opting for a currency board arrangement. This would eliminate the possibility of any discretionary domestic monetary policy action since the buy essay online cheap, domestic component of the bambara, monetary base could only change in response to a change in the foreign currency component of the base. Papers Online Gate Essay! Despite the only limited experience with the currency board arrangement to date, the experience would nevertheless allow us to declare it, provisionally, to the lesson cade bambara theme essay be a success.
Some governments, which have opted for this arrangement, have found, however, that during the recent financial market turbulence, their economies were not immune from contagious spillover despite having fairly healthy economic fundamentals. This is the result of the currency board arrangement not being an unequivocal one since the government in question retains the option of write of leadership revoking the arrangement. Financial markets will therefore factor this possibility into their calculations and actions, ensuring that these countries suffer some contagious effects. The Lesson Bambara Theme Essay! This has stimulated a debate as to whether it would not be better for such currency board countries to go beyond the currency board arrangement and opt for full dollarisation, and essay topics allow the domestic currency to be replaced entirely by the dollar for all transactions. Hayek espoused the denationalisation of currencies. He recommended that this be achieved through a comprehensive privatisation of the supply of money. It is the lesson bambara theme, notable that, of the two routes to papers cheap moderation and happiness denationalisation of the lesson by toni cade bambara theme currencies that have been taken so far, neither follows the route recommended by Hayek.
One is the route taken by the governments of the EUI I through an international agreement of buy research papers online and happiness equals, which has resulted in the lesson bambara essay, the arrival of the euro. Another route is through so-called dollarisation whereby a country voluntarily relinquishes its own currency in favour of adopting a foreign currency, the essay, dollar. It appears to me, therefore, that under the the lesson cade bambara theme, Hayek proposal, we are likely to get either one or other of the following unfavourable outcomes. Buy Research Cheap! On the one hand, we could see the emergence of floating exchange rates between different privately-issued moneys, resulting in an uncertain discovery process without any guarantee of a stable outcome, along with a deterioration in economic communication and co-ordination in the economy overall. On the other hand, any attempt by private issuers to the lesson cade bambara pre-empt these outcomes by fixing the exchange rates between their currencies would probably trigger Gresham 's Law and result in accelerating inflation.
The importance of inside money. Since the birth of central banking, governments - via the central bank - have supplied financial instruments that have simultaneously fulfilled all of the effect essay, three functions of money I have already mentioned. They have suppressed competition in the supply of currency and bank reserves (that is, so-called outside money). However, they have not suppressed competition in the supply of the other components of money, that is so-called inside money, which has been supplied exclusively by the private sector. Until just recently, inside money consisted exclusively of the lesson by toni cade bambara essay bank deposits which were supplied competitively by banks. However, governments have nevertheless restricted the get someone virtues, supply of means of the lesson cade theme essay payment and stores of value by the private sector in the past. Buy Essay Online! But this has been very substantially liberalised over the last twenty years or so.
The result is by toni cade bambara essay, that the availability of efficient means of payment that can also serve as good stores of value (and thus as a hedge against inflation) has improved almost beyond recognition compared with what was available during the period of financial repression. Although governments have retained a monopoly on the production of high-powered money, they have always permitted and indeed increasingly encouraged competition in the production of inside money. The upshot of this is that outside money now comprises only a rather small fraction of total money balances (taking, say, a broad definition of the money stock). Effect Essay Topics! After undergoing a dramatic decline, particularly in the period following the Second World War, it now ranges from about 1% in the United States and the lesson by toni bambara theme essay about 5% in the United Kingdom to about 6% in Germany  . Governments have retained a monopoly over the production of high-powered money. There are very good reasons for this. Notes and coin issued by library images the central bank and, in some cases, by the government are unique in the following sense: they are the only instrument that can mediate a transaction and settle it with finality at one and the same time which it does by virtue of its legal tender status. Currency is also unique in that it supplies the unit of account for the whole economy. Although privately supplied inside money and publicly supplied outside money compete with one another as transaction media and stores of the lesson by toni cade theme value, there is nevertheless a kind of symbiotic relationship between the two.
This is, first, because inside money (predominantly bank deposits) may owe its acceptability to the fact that its issuers promise, and indeed are legally bound, to redeem it [either immediately (sight deposits), upon maturity (time deposits) or after a period of notice (savings deposits)] in outside money and, second, because outside money provides the unit of account for the whole system without which inside money might be less acceptable in cheap, the absence of the lesson by toni cade essay a single (commodity) numeraire. Seen in this light, it appears that Hayek was correct in arguing that efficiency and (price) stability would be enhanced if money were to be supplied privately and write my paper competitively. Bambara Theme Essay! Indeed, the fact is that most of online conventionally measured money stocks are now comprised predominantly of inside money, i.e., money supplied by private enterprise, but more specifically the medium-of-exchange and store-of-value functions of this inside money. Hayek's arguments for free competition in the lesson by toni bambara theme essay, the supply of money are therefore, in principle, applicable to these two functions of best service inside money. However, I believe he was mistaken in thinking that the theme, economy would best be served if his recommendation were to apply to all aspects or functions of money. His recommendation neglected the public good aspect of buy essay money, which derives from its function as a unit of account. Money with a stable purchasing power serves agents, who do not even use it as a medium of exchange or a store of value, as the universally acceptable unit of account. It could be argued that, with Monetary Union in Europe , two things have happened which play a role in the current discussion. First, the bambara theme, geographical reach of the new unit of account, the euro, has been extended dramatically, relative to that of its forerunner currencies (or forerunner units of help library account). Second, the degree of competition between private sector agents in the provision of the other two functions of money, those of a medium of exchange and the lesson by toni cade theme store of value, will almost certainly be enhanced, leading - over time - to considerable improvements in the quality of the buy research cheap gate essay, latter.
The introduction of the new single unit of account means that there has, as from the beginning of January this year, already been a direct and immediate welfare gain for both producers and consumers since the moneyness of existing money balances has been greatly enhanced. There are several sources of this welfare gain. To mention just one: the merger of the the lesson by toni bambara essay, currencies of the cheap essay, Euro I I countries into the single currency, the euro, last January has - in one fell swoop - eliminated foreign exchange transaction costs for all cross- border transactions within the euro area. Indeed, it is because of the greatly extended reach of the the lesson by toni cade bambara, new single unit of account that the scope available to the private sector to improve the quality of money has been greatly enhanced. This will operate through the buy research online gate essay, new competitive opportunities for the banking and financial industries in the lesson cade essay, the whole euro area. Welfare will be further enhanced over time as the single currency imparts the necessary critical mass to the single money and financial services market in Europe . 5. Hayek transposed onto the world of the new payments technologies and e-money. Hayek's analysis and comments related to a world of what might be called analogue money, that is money that was represented as book entries (bank deposits, so-called inside money) or in the form of paper notes or metal coin (so-called outside money). Despite the papers online cheap the fiftieth gate, fact that many earlier predictions of the demise of the lesson theme paper money turned out to be false, I think it is safe to say that it is at buy research papers online cheap moderation, last making way to theme essay the ongoing digitalisation revolution as reflected in the dramatic progress in computer and communications technologies.
These developments are now underpinning rapid advances in payment and settlement infrastructures. It has enabled new payment media to emerge that compete directly with the means of payment, that is notes and coin, issued by the central bank and backed by government. New payment media take many forms, but the most commonly known are prepaid cards and debit cards. Still more advanced forms of digital money, such as electronic network money, have now become technically feasible and may soon make their commercial appearance. These present new opportunities for a much more efficient payment system, but at the same time pose new challenges for monetary arrangements and monetary policy. An aspect worth emphasising here is the fact that central bank money in the form of notes and coin does not need a payments infrastructure in order to mediate payments. As has already been noted, central bank money can perform the payment and settlement functions (with finality) at one and the same time, by virtue of its legal tender status. However, privately issued financial instruments (bank deposits, for buy research online cheap the fiftieth, example) are not money in the lesson cade theme, this sense unless complemented by a payments infrastructure.
The analogue payments structures with which we have become so familiar in essay, many countries are cheques and cheque clearing. The payments technologies now becoming available to the private sector are undergoing unprecedented improvements. The effects are likely to be profound. Their widespread application could eventually mean radical rethinking about what we understand under money. In particular, they will increasingly provide private enterprise with far greater scope to the lesson bambara theme compete directly with central bank notes and essay writing coin as payment media. There is a very specific part of this process which deserves special attention. When there is by toni essay, a delay between a transaction and its settlement, as is the case in most existing privately supplied paper-based payment and settlement infrastructures (using cheques and paper- based direct debits, for example), there is an element of risk attached to most of the payments effected in this way.
A number of different types of risk are involved - credit risk, interest rate risk, operational risk, etc. Best 700! The risks involved in these privately based payments media imparted a comparative advantage to currency as a transaction medium, since the latter was the only instrument that could perform a payment and settlement function (with finality) at one and the same time. And it did so by virtue of its legal tender status. This meant that notes and coin facilitated transactions in anonymous market situations since the seller never had to concern himself/herself with the creditworthiness of the the lesson by toni cade theme essay, buyer. However, an important feature of the new electronic payment and settlement infrastructure is and cause essay, its ability (at least potentially) to compress the transactions-settlement time lag to what is virtually zero in the lesson by toni bambara, economic time. This creates an buy research papers online cheap the fiftieth, essentially new situation which has the potential to obviate many, if not all, of the types of risk normally encountered in executing payments and the lesson by toni bambara theme essay their settlement with inside money and, in best essay writing service reviews, principle, allows a much wider array of assets, especially marketable assets, to be mobilised as transaction media.
The new technology allows the vendor to verify that the cade theme, purchaser possesses sufficient funds to cover the transaction and, in principle, permits a transfer of these funds to the vendor's bank account in real time. It further allows the vendor to verify in real time that the funds have indeed been credited to his/her account. This allows the settlement of the transaction with finality to occur at essay, virtually the by toni cade bambara theme essay, same time as the transaction itself. Privately supplied payment instruments therefore now have the get someone write virtues, potential, when complemented with the most up-to-date computer and the lesson cade theme essay communications technologies, to provide a more attractive alternative to notes and coin as a transaction medium. Virtues Of Leadership! And, given that the former are also potentially much more efficient in a number of ways, it is not inconceivable that one could face the prospect of the lesson by toni cade bambara a rapid erosion of the role of notes and coin as transaction media in the not-too-distant future. The type of networking effects that support the buy essay, acceptance of the euro are the same as those supporting the growth of electronic competition to notes and coin. More specifically, the price people are willing to pay for the lesson by toni, the use of electronic means of payment increases with the and cause essay topics, number of existing users (demand-side economies of scale), while the price they would have to pay would be likely to fall as a result of declining unit costs of production as output expands (supply-side economies of scale, which tend to be large for networking products) and as competition forces lower costs to be passed on to customers. This dynamic would, of course, only start to take effect once a critical mass of usage has been attained. There may also be forces promoting the growth of electronic means of payment at work which are unique to the lesson cade the euro area and the changeover process to Stage Three (B) of Economic and Monetary Union. Cpm Homework Help Library Images! The conventional channels of access to a currency at the retail level (that is notes and coin) will not be available in the case of the euro for the first three years, that is throughout Stage Three A of Monetary Union.
The only by toni means of access to the euro for households, and cheap moderation and happiness possibly for many small firms, may therefore be via electronic media, both electronic money and electronic access products that allow scriptural money (bank deposits) denominated in euro to be mobilised for transaction purposes. The non-availability of the euro in the form of notes and coin could therefore impart an extra stimulus to the growth of e-money and electronic access products. The assumption from the current perspective is that all of these new payment instruments will be issued by private issuers. Despite fairly extensive discussions of the topic among central bankers, there has been no suggestion that central banks should issue e-money or be involved in the new retail electronic payments infrastructure as an active participant. Therefore, the growth of electronic means of the lesson theme payment will amount to get someone write my paper virtues an important further step in the process of privatisation in the field of the the lesson cade bambara theme essay, payments and monetary system, especially because the new digital payment media compete directly with the analogue-based media (notes and coin) supplied by the central bank. If this were to happen to such an extent that central bank money were driven out of the business of retail payments, then Hayek's vision would almost have been achieved  . But with distinct differences because, first, it would have been achieved by a gradual evolution in financial market innovation and by improvements in payment technologies, rather than by effect topics the type of top-down legislative decree that he himself had envisaged to bambara theme essay remove the central bank entirely from monetary management and, second, because that evolution would have occurred without jeopardising the single unit of account. This gradual process of papers the fiftieth gate privatisation is by toni cade bambara essay, one which central banks might logically be expected to oppose, but this has not been the case.
On the contrary, they are actively taking steps to effect and cause help promote the growth of electronic substitutes for notes and coin. They are doing so by seeking agreement between the competent official bodies and potential private sector issuers on standardisation - the objective being to promote inter-operability between different privately supplied alternatives. Although this might seem like the proverbial turkeys voting for Christmas, central bankers place a very high priority on the smooth and efficient working of the the lesson cade theme, payment system at both the retail and wholesale levels. Therefore the ECB considers it essential that the following minimum requirements be fulfilled: issuers of electronic money must be subject to prudential supervision; the issuance must be subject to sound and transparent legal arrangements, technical security, protection against criminal abuse and monetary statistics reporting; issuers of electronic money must be legally obliged, at the request of the holders, to redeem electronic money against get someone my paper central bank money at par; the possibility must exist for central banks to impose reserve requirements on the lesson by toni cade theme, all issuers of effect and cause topics electronic money. The ECB has also identified two further objectives, the pursuit of the lesson bambara essay which it deems to be desirable: the inter-operability of electronic money schemes and the adoption of adequate guarantee, insurance or loss-sharing schemes to protect depositors. Online Economics! The third requirement mentioned is of particular significance in bambara theme essay, the context of the current discussion. Buy Research Papers Online! This is because, from a monetary policy point of view, the redeemability requirement is, inter alia, necessary in order to preserve the unit-of-account function of money, to maintain price stability by avoiding any unconstrained issuance of electronic money, and to safeguard the controllability of the liquidity conditions and short-term interest rates set by the ESCB (p. 106, ECB Annual Report, 1998). If the whole process triggered by the availability of new electronic retail means of by toni cade essay payment is cheap economics, finally brought to its logical conclusion, as suggested by cade bambara theme essay the dynamics of technological development and free competition, central banks and governments will be confronted with a very specific problem of pivotal significance: can the unit of account be separated from the means of payment, while still remaining a viable unit of account and playing the crucial role of providing the common money language for the whole economy? If the means of payment embodying the unit of account, that is notes and coin, is - over time - eliminated as a transaction medium by virtue of the competition of the emerging digital equivalents issued by the private sector, would the familiar existing units of account, the euro, the US dollar, the pound sterling, etc., continue to mean anything? And, if not, what should be the official response?
I don't propose to address either of service 700 these issues today, but you may rest assured that they are crucial to our concerns regarding the future, albeit probably somewhat distant future. Hayek seems to have had very little doubt but that private enterprise, operating in a largely unregulated environment, would deliver a monetary system that is stable, safe and efficient. However, I remain rather sceptical whether the essay, private sector can cope with all the externalities involved in the provision of a smoothly working monetary and financial system. It must nevertheless be conceded that the private sector is increasingly helping to evolve a monetary and financial system, supported by increasingly sophisticated payments infrastructures that promises to be significantly more efficient than the system it is gradually displacing. There is, accordingly, no strong case to be made for write my paper virtues, attempting to introduce such a system by fiat. By Toni Bambara Theme! It is essay writing, preferable that it should evolve by piece-meal engineering, rather than by some abrupt legislative change as sought by proponents of competing currencies and free banking, of which Hayek could, with some justification, be regarded as the high priest. It should also be borne in mind that the central bank will continue to play, during this transitional period and afterwards, an by toni, important role as a regulator of the financial system by, inter alia, setting the rules for competition between private suppliers of inside money. Hayek referred, in 1978 (op. cit.), to the possibility of Monetary Union in clear and strong terms.
He put it this way: though I strongly sympathise with the desire to complete the economic unification of Western Europe by completely freeing the flow of buy research papers online cheap and happiness money between them, I have grave doubts about cade doing so by creating a new European currency managed by get someone write my paper virtues of leadership any sort of the lesson by toni cade essay supra-national authority. Quite apart from the extreme unlikelihood that the online, member countries would agree on the policy to be pursued in practice by a common monetary authority (and the practical inevitability of some countries getting a worse currency than they have now), it seems highly unlikely that it would be better administered than the present national currencies. At one level, Monetary Union encompassing the Euro I I countries could, therefore, be seen as a project diametrically opposed to the type of scheme advocated by Hayek according to by toni essay the aforementioned quotes. Instead of allowing the online cheap economics, private sector to compete in issuing their own currencies, the single currency was introduced by by toni cade theme governments coming together and introducing the euro in a top-down fashion by legislative decree, while continuing to buy essay cheap economics prohibit the private sector from issuing currency. Any attempt by the private sector to issue banknotes or coins is the lesson by toni bambara theme essay, counterfeiting, a serious criminal offence.
At another level, one can see many strands in service, Hayek's thinking that may have influenced the theme essay, course of the events leading to buy research online cheap the fiftieth essay Monetary Union in subtle ways. What has happened with the introduction of the euro has indeed achieved the denationalisation of money, as advocated by Hayek, at least in the Euro 11 countries. Furthermore, the euro is being managed by a central bank (the ECB) that is protected from political interference by a Treaty (the Maastricht Treaty), to which all Member States are signatories. All national central banks that comprise the cade bambara essay, Eurosystem are now independent of their respective Euro I I governments and, according to their respective statutes, cannot take instructions from these governments. Moreover, the Eurosystem is supranational and does not therefore have any natural political counterpart in the form of writing service reviews 700 a supranational government with full executive powers. This further underpins the cade bambara, independence of the Eurosystem and enables it to get someone my paper virtues pursue its mandated ultimate objective, that is price stability, without interference from government. Thus, monetary policy in the Euro I I countries has been denationalised and the lesson is being conducted by a supranational central bank, which is 700, politically independent of the governments of the Member States.
Furthermore, any monetary financing of the public sector or privileged access to financial institutions are prohibited. The separation between public finance and monetary policy is thereby ensured. This is very much in line with views expressed by Hayek:  It may still be true that, if there were full agreement as to what monetary policy ought to aim for, an independent authority fully protected against political pressure and free to decide on the means to be employed in order to achieve the theme essay, ends it has been assigned might be the buy essay, best arrangement. By Toni Theme Essay! The old argument in favour of independent central banks still has great merit. He goes on to elaborate that under present conditions we have little choice but to limit monetary policy by prescribing its goals rather than its specific actions. He then comments on employment and price stability as goals for monetary policy, concluding that the two aims are not necessarily in conflict provided that the requirements for papers and happiness, monetary stability are given first place and the rest of economic policy is cade, adapted to online cheap them. Last, but not least, Hayek emphasised (again strongly) the dangers from monetary financing: if we are to preserve a functioning market economy, nothing can be more urgent than that we dissolve the unholy marriage between monetary and fiscal policy, long clandestine, but formally consecrated with the victory of Keynesian economics.  (italics in original). Hayek himself has explained the objectives of his proposal: the the lesson cade theme essay, abolition of the effect topics, government monopoly of money was conceived to prevent the bouts of acute inflation and deflation, which plagued the world for the last sixty years. Hayek was very clear about where to put the blame: the the lesson by toni cade essay, basic tools of civilisation - language, morals, law and money - are all results of spontaneous growth and not of design, and of the cpm homework, last two organised power has got hold and thoroughly corrupted them.  Or, as he put it later, in even stronger terms: the the lesson, history of government management of money has, except for a few happy periods, been one of incessant fraud and deception.  The institutional reform which he espoused to tackle this problem was indeed radical. It involved, as we have seen, the denationalisation of money to be achieved by the complete abolition of the government's monopoly over the issue of get someone write my paper virtues fiat money leaving the way open for supply of money to be determined by cade bambara theme essay comprehensive private sector competition. I would not be doing justice to Hayek if I neglected to topics mention that, at by toni theme essay, an earlier stage in papers moderation and happiness, his thinking, he put forward proposals for by toni theme, controlling inflation which have now become the library images, conventional wisdom.
In chapter 21 of his famous book entitled: The Constitution of the lesson bambara essay Liberty and published in 1960, he wonders, as I have just flagged, whether an independent monetary authority, fully protected against political pressure and free to buy research papers decide on the means to be employed in order to achieve the ends it has been assigned, might be the best arrangement. However, he seems to have viewed central bank independence as an inadequate solution since, as early as the 1960s, he concluded that, in by toni cade theme, light of the high level of government debt, that . an effective monetary policy can be conducted only in buy research online essay, co-ordination with the financial policy of the government. Co-ordination in this respect, however, inevitably means that whatever nominally independent monetary authorities still exist have in fact to adjust their policy to the lesson by toni cade essay that of the government (see Hayek 1960, page 327). Buy Research Papers Essay! I think it is now clear that it was ideas along these lines that were the inspiration behind the bambara theme essay, rules and procedures in the EU Treaty, and I refer in particular to and cause essay topics Articles 104 and 104a. In fact, I would argue that one reason for Hayek's change of mind and his subsequent advocacy of complete privatisation of money, as revealed by the views expressed in Constitution of Liberty in I960 and those put forward in Denationalisation of the lesson cade Money in 1978, is to be found in his disappointment with the trends in the monetary institutions during his lifetime. He seems to have said as much: . high hopes of what could be expected from best essay writing service reviews 700, political control over money have been bitterly disappointed. . unchecked party politics and the lesson bambara theme essay stable money are inherently incompatible (italics in the original).  The tentative answer to papers cheap Hayek's concern - the now classic time inconsistency-induced inflation bias - was finally found in institutional reform. In all industrialised countries monetary policy is now being managed by by toni cade theme (more or less) independent central banks with the key objective of maintaining price stability. Monetary financing of the public sector is excluded. Monetary stability is protected by law and social consensus.
How would Hayek, if he were alive today, see EMU and the ECB? Let me hazard what is probably a somewhat biased and speculative answer. The route to monetary union taken by member governments and central banks was almost diametrically opposed to that espoused by him in his later writings. But, should he not welcome what we have achieved? Should he not be pleased that so much of his earlier (I960) blueprint is now law? I am convinced that he would welcome the fact that the ECB has not joined the new fashionable wave arguing that money does not matter. It is very easy to slip into the trap of thinking that money is unimportant when inflation is low and to ignore the overwhelming evidence that all past episodes of best reviews persistent inflation have been preceded, or been accompanied, by rapid money growth.
Robert Lucas in cade bambara essay, his Nobel Lecture has only recently reminded us of the facts and I quote: . the prediction that prices respond proportionately to changes in money in the long run, deduced by Hume in 1752 (and by many other theorists, by many different routes, since), has received ample - I would say decisive - confirmation, in buy essay online economics, data from many times and places. (p. 668)  . As I have already argued, the by toni cade bambara, quality of money, which has to do with how well it performs its micro-economic functions of medium of exchange, store of value and in particular unit of account, is cheap, related to the quantity of money. Too much of the latter, relative to ex ante demand for money, can substantially impair the former. Since inflation is by toni cade theme essay, ultimately a monetary phenomenon, money constitutes a natural, firm and reliable nominal anchor for a monetary policy aimed at price stability. This accounts for why money is given a prominent role in the fiftieth gate essay, the ECB's monetary policy strategy. Therefore, although the path taken to achieve denationalisation of money has been very different than that advocated by Hayek, the the lesson by toni cade bambara theme, ultimate objective being sought by Hayek, i.e., monetary independence from political interference and price stability, have, to all intents and purposes, already been achieved. Of course, I should add as an essential precautionary note, that price stability is never fully achieved in the sense that it is a forward-looking concept and cpm homework help the ECB must be eternally vigilant, and the lesson theme act in a pre-emptive way, so as to ensure that inflationary pressures are not given an buy research papers cheap gate essay, opportunity to translate into by toni theme, actual inflation. Having said this, however, I am afraid Hayek might not be in images, favour of cade bambara theme a new centralised authority with monopoly powers over base money. Get Someone Write Of Leadership! The Treaty of Maastricht is virtually the very opposite of what Hayek proposed, because, among other things, the the lesson cade, new monetary order in help images, the EUI I has been created not in an evolutionary process but in a constructivist way per statute at a fixed date, i.e., the first of January this year.
I am convinced that the bambara essay, EU I I governments have, in principle, taken the correct route to monetary union. They could hardly afford to buy research papers online cheap gate take what might have been an by toni cade bambara theme, enormous risk in adopting a Hayekian discovery process as a route to monetary union, as had been advocated in the so-called hard ECU proposal  . This would amount to experimenting with the monetary constitution , a very dangerous strategy. Continuity in effect and cause, monetary arrangements and institutions is of the essence. A premium must be placed on the tried and the lesson by toni bambara essay tested. It is essay writing reviews, therefore preferable to subscribe to a philosophy of piecemeal engineering in the reform of a proven monetary system by the lesson by toni cade allowing it to evolve in essay writing reviews, response to by toni cade essay the needs of the economy and to the opportunities provided by advances in online, technology in an efficient fashion. Although the hard currency proposal has not been adopted, and correctly so in my view, it could nevertheless be plausibly argued that a kind of Hayekian discovery process has indeed been triggered by the introduction of the euro.
This is because, with the introduction of the euro and the dramatically extended geographical reach of the new single unit of account, the scope available to the private sector to enhance the quality of the medium-of-exchange and store-of-value functions of money, where it's comparative advantage lies, has been significantly improved. This new and the lesson bambara theme more robust competitive environment should ensure a lively discovery process in the provision of these functions of money as new opportunities are presented for the banking and financial industries in the euro area as a whole. In the sequencing of events on the road to the political integration of Europe , I once had a distinct preference for political union preceding monetary union. As I have argued elsewhere  , historical experience shows that national territories and monetary territories normally coincide. Now, of effect essay topics course, the by toni, reality is that, if political union is online, ever to occur, monetary union will have preceded it. However, with the establishment of the ECB and the introduction of the the lesson cade essay, single currency, intentionally or not, a process towards further political integration has been triggered. Although this process is cpm homework help images, not without risks, it nevertheless provides a golden opportunity for Europe to find its proper political shape.
In Hayek's terminology, imposing monetary union on Europe was an act of constructionism. But, to continue in his way of argumentation, this should also have started a search process for an appropriate political framework so that, finally, the economic and monetary regime, and the field of politics, together form a viable, if not optimal, institutional arrangement. There are no patterns from the by toni bambara essay, past available which could easily be imitated. Further political integration might, subsequently, develop in a quite divergent direction. In some areas, more centralisation of decision making should be necessary, whereas in other fields, responsibility might remain, or even be enhanced, at cheap, the local, regional or national level. As I have said recently  , and I think it bears repeating, what is essential for the lesson cade bambara theme essay, a successful monetary union is a sufficient degree of political commitment by all participating countries, the leading economic actors and the wider public to accept fundamentally and genuinely the political and economic constraints that a single and stable currency represents. Library Images! The deeper underlying commitment to make European integration a success even in the most difficult of times in the lesson by toni theme essay, history gives some general grounds for hope on images, this count. Some degree of political unity (not necessarily union), or rather a sense of common responsibility would appear to be important for the long-run health of EMU. However, it is not a substitute for the right economic conditions for lasting success.  See Jurgen Badura und Otmar Issing, Geldpolitik, Stuttgart 1980.  Das intertemporale Gleichgewichtssystem der Preise und die Bewegungen des Geldwertes which can be translated as The system of intertemporal price equilibrium and movements in the value of money.
 See Michael Bruno and Jeffrey Sachs, Economics of the lesson by toni cade theme Worldwide Stagflation, Harvard University Press, 1985, for an excellent presentation of this period.  Robert E. Jr. Lucas, Rules, Discretion and the Role of the Economic Advisor, in Stanley Fischer (ed.), Rational Expectations and Economic Policy, Chicago 1980, p. 204.  Choice in Currency: a Way to Stop Inflation, IEA Occasional Paper, 48, 1976.  Hayek's proposal must be distinguished from free banking, which refers to a monetary system without a central bank, in which private banks would be allowed to issue currency and bank deposits without restriction. As practised in the 19th century, this version of free banking involved banknotes being redeemable in gold and silver coin, (see Lawrence H. White, Free Banking in Britain , Theory, Experience, and Debate, 1800 - 1845. Get Someone Write My Paper Virtues! Institute of Economic Affairs, London , 1995).  It should be noted that, in Hayek's proposal, equilibrium is assumed to exist and to be stable, and information is bambara theme, complete, symmetric and acquired at no cost. See Charles Goodhart, The Evolution of online cheap moderation Central Banks, MIT Press, 1988.  This is the assumption made by Milton Friedman in his seminal paper, The Optimum Quantity of Money in The Optimum Quantity of Money and other Essays, Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, 1969.  Irving Fisher, The Money Illusion, Adelphi Company Publishers, New York , 1928.
 See Greenfield and Yeager (1983), A Laissez-Faire Approach to Monetary Stability, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 15, pp 302-315.  See Yeager (1983), Stable Money and Free Market Currencies, Cato Journal, Vol. The Lesson Bambara Theme Essay! 3, No. Online Moderation! I, pp 305 - 326.  As is well known by now, the Governing Council of the ECB has not opted for strict price stability as an objective but has rather defined price stability . as a year-on-year increase in the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HIPC) for the euro area of by toni cade theme essay below 2%. Price stability, according to this definition, is to be maintained over online gate essay, the medium term.  See, for example, Goodhart, op. cit.  See, Denationalisation of Money, op. cit., p. 142.  See also, Denationalisation of Money, op. cit., p. 142.
 Both the US and German figures are corrected for estimated holdings of dollar and DM currency held outside the US and Germany respectively.  Central bank money could, of course, remain as a transactions and settlement medium at the wholesale level in cade bambara, the interbank market.  Friedrich von Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, Routledge, London , I960.  Friedrich von Hayek, 1978, op. cit.  Friedrich von Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty , University of Chicago Press , 1979.  Friedrich von Hayek, The Fatal Conceit: the Errors of Socialism, Routledge, 1988.  Friedrich von Hayek, Market Standards for Money, Economic Affairs, April-May 1986.  Robert E. Lucas, Jr., Nobel Lecture: Monetary Neutrality, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 104, No. Cpm Homework Help Library! 4, 1996.
 Such a proposal had been advocated at various times the UK Chancellor and Prime Minister Thatcher as an alternative evolutionary route to monetary union in Europe .  See Otmar Issing, Europe : Political Union through Common Money, IEA Occasional Paper 98, February 1996.  See Otmar Issing: The Euro four weeks after the start, speech delivered at the European-Atlantic Group, House of Commons, London, January 1998. Directorate General Communications. Sonnemannstrasse 20, 60314 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Reproduction is permitted provided that the source is acknowledged. When the the lesson by toni cade bambara theme, auto-update function is enabled, any update released on the homepage will automatically appear without the whole page being reloaded.
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12 Reasons Not to Buy a Pet Turtle or Tortoise. It's a little embarrassing to the lesson by toni bambara write this article, not only because everyone who knows me knows I am a turtle and cpm homework help, tortoise nerd, but also because I have literally loved turtles and by toni cade bambara, tortoises to death. Buy Research Papers Online Moderation. You see, even though I'd read several books on these extraordinary reptiles, I still couldn't care for them like they needed. Cade Theme Essay. Because of this, several have died under my (lack of) care. Before you read the reasons you shouldn't get a tortoise or a turtle, I want to emphasize that I speak as someone who was convinced he had the means and environment to keep such a wonderful pet. Service Reviews 700. Some people I've met can keep these pets alive, but few can keep a turtle or tortoise and the lesson by toni cade theme essay, have them thrive.
If you're thinking about getting one, for the sake of these beautiful creatures, please read this list first and sleep on your decision. If you truly think you have the buy research online cheap and happiness, requirements to the lesson by toni cade purchase a pet turtle or tortoise then by all means move forward, but only then! How Long Do You Think Turtles and Tortoises Can Live? Four Things You Didn't Know About Turtles and buy essay cheap, Tortoises. Many people purchase baby turtles or tortoises because of how cute they are, not knowing that these animals have more to them that meets the the lesson by toni cade bambara theme, eye. Here are four things most people don't know about write my paper virtues turtles and tortoises: They can carry salmonella. In fact, selling small turtles (shells less than four inches long) was banned in 1975 to prevent the spread of Salmonella . According to the CDC, this ban likely remains the by toni cade bambara, most effective public health action to effect and cause essay prevent turtle-associated salmonellosis.
They live for a long time. If maintained properly, some turtles can live for decades (even longer than humans) and grow to be a foot long. Some box turtles in the wild are over 200 years old. The Lesson Cade Theme Essay. (How'd you do on the pop quiz!?) If released into the wild, pet turtles can be a danger to local populations of turtles and tortoises. Write Virtues Of Leadership. Because of the the lesson by toni cade bambara theme, pet-trade, red-eared-sliders are now considered one of the world's 100 most invasive species. Effect And Cause Essay. They need room. Turtles and tortoises need about by toni theme 10 gallons of tank space for every inch of shell.
Red-eared sliders are the most common and least expensive pet turtle, and they grow to 7 - 9 inches long, meaning you'll need 70 - 90 gallons of tank space. Nine Things You Need to Know Before You Buy a Pet Turtle. Like any pet, you need to buy essay online cheap do your research before getting a turtle or tortoise. Here are nine things you need to think about theme essay before purchasing one. The start-up cost of buy research online the fiftieth gate, buying a turtle and its habitat (which can be $600 - $1,200), is the lesson by toni cade actually the help, cheapest part of by toni cade bambara, turtle ownership. Your turtle will require hundreds of get someone write my paper of leadership, dollars in upkeep each year. Bambara Theme Essay. Turtles can live for a very long time, often over 25 years. Be prepared to care for a turtle for its entire lifetime. Turtles need fresh, clean water and bedding. You should expect to spend about half an hour each day caring for your turtle.
You'll need to online cheap gate find someone to help care for your turtle while you're gone. The Lesson Cade Bambara Theme Essay. Most turtles and tortoises hibernate for online the fiftieth gate essay, 10-20 weeks. You'll need to make sure it has an the lesson cade theme appropriate hibernating environment. Your turtle or tortoise will need fresh fruit, vegetables, mice, and write, insects to eat. Turtles do not really interact with or particularly like humans. Bambara. Keep in mind that your pet will mostly interact with you only at feeding time. Though cute, turtles and tortoises do not make good pets for children, especially because they can transmit salmonella. If you do choose to purchase a turtle or tortoise, choose the species carefully. For example, it probably doesn't make sense to effect essay have a turtle from a tropical climate if you live somewhere that gets very cold. Never purchase a turtle that was wild-caught.
Before getting one, ask the dealer for proof that the turtle was captive-bred and cade theme essay, raised. This will ensure safe pet-trade practices as well as help make sure you have a healthy turtle. Necessary Equipment for Your Turtle and Its Cost. The 12 Reasons Not to service reviews Buy a Pet Tortoise or Turtle. Even though it is, in theory, possible to provide your turtle with the the lesson essay, environment it needs to thrive, most people don't have the time, money, or desire to put so much effort into their turtle pet. Help Images. Here are the main reasons you shouldn't get a turtle or tortoise. Like mentioned above, even the smallest turtles and tortoises require a lot of square footage to live happily. Many turtles also need both an aquatic and a terrestrial environment, a place where they can completely dry off.
A medium-sized tortoise such as a South American Yellow or a Red Foot requires serious square footage. It can be expensive to provide that in tank form, but don't think this means they can freely roam your house. Read the the lesson cade theme essay, next reason to find out buy research online cheap moderation and happiness why! 2. You Can't Maintain the Correct Temperature Consistently. In a well-meaning attempt at giving my now-deceased Red Foot tortoise some more room to roam, I let him amble through my former Chicago apartment. He disappeared! I couldn't believe it!
It wasn't until several weeks later that I found his rigor mortised carcass. He had somehow found his way into the only cade non-heated room in write of leadership the house. Even without mishaps like this, it's difficult to maintain the correct temperature in a tank environment, and by toni cade bambara theme essay, you'll need to purchase thermometers to make sure your pet is at the ideal heat level. 3. You Can't Give the Reptile a Secure Habitat. I once had a box turtle named Geronimo (not a good name for a turtle.) I thought I had a wonderful habitat set up for him in my yard with over 100 square feet of space surrounded by get someone virtues, chicken wire. However, he either climbed out, or a cat jumped in theme and claimed him.
Either way he disappeared within the online cheap, span of a week. The Lesson By Toni Cade Theme. If you try to give them the space they need in buy research papers online and happiness anything besides a tank environment, you'll find it hard to secure. 4. You Think You Know Everything Because You Read One Article or Book. I thought I knew everything I needed to know because I'd read one book about the lesson by toni essay box turtles when I was a kid. I placed three healthy specimens in buy essay online cheap a barren enclosure on my porch. However, all three perished, overheating in this enclosure which didn't provide the required temperature gradient or shelter needed by bambara essay, all reptiles. It was also too small, and buy research papers gate, lacked substrate. You will find a lot of conflicting information on turtles and the lesson by toni cade bambara, tortoises published as if in great authority.
If you are serious about buy research online cheap the fiftieth essay being a good pet-owner, you'll need to read several sources to understand the high level of care that these animals require. 5. The Turtle and Tortoise Pet Trade Threatens Native Species. The Lesson By Toni Essay. This reason could arguably be #1 on the list, but I wanted to get some of the extreme cautions out of the way first. Where I live (Wisconsin in the United States), there used to be a large population of buy research papers online gate essay, box turtles. Hundreds of the lesson by toni theme essay, thousands of these were sold to the pet trade and to educational/medical suppliers in the past four decades. The species is not protected, but I fear it's too late. I've been looking for them in the wild all my life and have never seen one. You can hear the same story all over the world: Asian, Indian, African (especially Madagascar species) are all on decline. Best Service 700. In many parts of the world, it's against the law to own some species. I once cuddled up with my Red Foot tortoise and fell asleep only to wake up with a putrid warm and wet turd planted inches from my nose. Tortoises can carry salmonella and herpes to name two of the more upsetting diseases out by toni bambara there.
Although the get someone my paper virtues, claims that all small turtles carry salmonella are dubious, anyone handling these creatures would do well to constantly wash their hands after handling. Oh yeah, and don't take naps with them. Or give them to kids that might lick them or their fingers after handling. 7. You Can't Give Your Turtle or Tortoise an Adequate Diet. Most turtles and tortoises are omnivores, though some are strict vegetarians and others are carnivores. Each species has not only a varied diet, but in many cases each has a very specific list of foods that are usually only by toni cade available in buy essay online economics their home range. Whatever you do, don't think your pet can survive on essay, pellets from a pet store. This is a death sentence. All turtles and tortoises need a lot of fresh food. My roommates once had an ornery pet Chow. I came home from work one day to find the dog tearing open my box turtle.
It was a tragedy. Also, about a month later, the papers online, dog mysteriously died. I've read that many box turtles carry built up levels of toxins in their bodies because they eat mushrooms and other things that are poisonous to most other animals. 9. You Can't Afford a Head-Started Hatchling. In another mixture of misguided attempt at animal husbandry I bought a half-year-old leopard tortoise because he was cheap, around $100. The Lesson By Toni Bambara Essay. Unfortunately, his enclosure was too close to cpm homework help library a window. The Lesson By Toni. It wasn't encased because I thought that tortoises didn't need to write my paper virtues be in a tank-type enclosure. I was wrong.
At that tiny size, the creature needed humidity and the lesson by toni cade bambara, temperature that was strictly monitored, and grossly absent in the enclosure I provided. I brought the hatchling to a veterinarian where he administered a vitamin that brought him around for a few days. Instead of taking the vet's advice and best writing service reviews 700, putting him in an enclosed tank until he was larger, I brought him home to his former enclosure. The tortoise perished a few days later. 10. You Want an cade Exotic Pet for a Status Symbol. This is maybe the worst reason to buy a turtle or tortoise.
It means your heart is not really in papers cheap and happiness it, and you will not be taking all the steps necessary to care for the lesson by toni cade essay, this environmentally needy pet. Essay Reviews 700. If you want people to theme know how interesting you are, read a book or buy a Rolex. Buy Essay Online Cheap. Leave these vulnerable creatures out of it. 11. Once You Buy One, They Are Not Easy to the lesson cade theme essay Rehome. Buy Research The Fiftieth Essay. Turtles are the most abandoned pet in the United States (probably because of the reasons I've outlined above). However, releasing your pet into the wild is a bad idea. It's very dangerous for the turtle (who is unlikely to by toni cade bambara survive), and to the native population, which it can infect with diseases or damage through increased competition for resources. Zoos are also often reluctant to take them, because of the aforementioned reasons. If You Still Want a Pet Tortoise or Turtle, Get Informed. If you must buy a turtle or tortoise, read a lot about them.
Ask trainers, vets, or zoo keepers how to successfully care for these delicate creatures. Just because they have a shell does not make them indestructible. If I have exposed myself to ridicule here so be it. I deserve it. I should be ashamed of papers cheap the fiftieth, my gross mistakes in turtle and tortoise pet-care and I am.
I hope that this article at least, will give some people food for cade bambara essay, thought about purchasing a turtle or tortoise. And Cause Essay. I have vowed to never purchase another turtle or tortoise again, unless I own a property where I can provide it the absolute best environment. Things to Consider If You Still Want to Buy a Turtle or Tortoise. Take into careful consideration all the many needs these animals require. The Lesson Cade Bambara Theme. They are wonderful and fascinating creatures. Read books, articles, and ask professionals their advice on turtle care. If you must buy one, consider purchasing a red-eared slider as they are one of the easiest to take care of.
It's also one of the few species that is actually doing too well in essay reviews 700 the wild as it invades the environments of species that lay eggs less frequently. However, should you purchase a slider, be warned that because they are an aquatic species, they have a dynamic (read: odoriferous and gooey) bioload (poop) that needs to be filtered and cleaned frequently. (My thanks to a reader, Taylor, who wrote an the lesson essay eloquent rebuttal in help library images the Comments Section on cade bambara theme essay, why Russian Tortoises are much easier to maintain as pets than Red Eared Sliders. Namely, they don't need a tank full of effect essay topics, water to stay happy. Please read her comment below to find out more). Box Turtles are absolutely not for bambara, beginners, nor are Red Foots, Spider Tortoises, or Pancake Tortoises. Choose your pet wisely, and don't be afraid to consult and essay service, listen to a veterinarian if you need help. I encourage anyone with a knowledgeable opinion in the matter to by toni theme essay leave more reasons below in buy essay cheap economics the comments section.
A Heart-Warming Turtle Story From the Comments. Here's an cade bambara theme excerpt from the comment section below (edited for clarity and cpm homework, length). Theme. . . . My son and I captured a nickel-sized hatchling painter this year, and held onto my paper virtues, it for essay, a day. My son begged and buy research online cheap moderation, pleaded to keep it. Instead, we released it on the same lake where we found it (albeit a little closer to our house). A few months later we saw a small tortoise off the by toni, pier, near where we had released it.
It had doubled in essay reviews 700 size and was covered in some algae, looking healthy and happy. We're so lucky to live near a turtle's natural home and to visit him like a neighbor! by mariekbloch 18. Five False Notions About the Pet Turtle. by mariekbloch 0. by Laurie Bennett 0. How to Keep a Wild Turtle as a Pet. by Jessica Marello 10. Releasing My Turtle Back into the Wild: The Controversy. by mariekbloch 69. How to Care for Baby Snapping Turtles. by alycat0092 62. Totally agree. If you are not ready to by toni bambara theme commit to a unilateral relationship (YOU giving pleasure to your pet), better buy a cat or a dog. Torts and turts are reptiles, mind you, so they don't show the sort of affection dogs or cats do. Essay Service Reviews 700. They are cute and the lesson bambara, fun to essay writing 700 watch, however. Cade Bambara Theme Essay. I personally keep 6 of economics, those; 1 tort, 5 turts.
The tort is more amusing than the turts because they are more docile, gentle and the lesson by toni cade bambara, can share the same habitat as ours. I recommend RES for beginners because they are tough and resilient. I had 3 of online the fiftieth, them, 1 died due to jaw infection, the other two are more than 10yo now and are healthy. TIP: If you want to bambara theme essay get one, choose one with attitude, not appearance. Ones that are dominant (claiming the best basking spot in early morning,) fearless, are likelier to survive babyhood. Remember also that if you do want one, be ready to commit to keep them for years. My RESs survive on help images, a diet of pellets, shrimp scraps, live fishes and veggies (occasionally), the eat almost anything. And they spend 99.9% of their lives in the water. I kept the RES in small 2 cubic feet aquarium (yea, I know, too small for a half-foot turt,) and they were fine with it. I changed the water once every 2 or 3 days because I have no filtration system (had them, they clog up every 2 days.) So I don't think they actually need as much space as mentioned in the article. I now have a small pond to keep them, though, and they acted just like when they were in the lesson by toni cade their aquariums (following you around, thinking you're food.) Some caution, cute as they may be, RESs are aggressive and they WILL bite you in help images self defense or accidentally if you try to by toni theme hand feed them, so hand-feeding is NOT recommended.
As a matter of fact, petting them is not recommended. A friend of mine mischievously handled my RES, got bitten, and had severe infection. They also carry a lot of get someone write my paper of leadership, germs with them, so wash your hands often after handling them. Water from their aquarium helps road-kills decompose 2x faster (YES, we don't have anyone to take care of road-kills here, so they may lay there for the lesson theme, quite a while. ) which proves it is full of nasty, nasty germs. As for the tort, I keep it in my backyard.
I built it a burrow using an overturned large bucket with 1/4 side cut open as entrance, and a small tub for it to hydrate and wallow. Both are tucked in the shady corners of the yard. I sometimes allow it to enter my house. Best Essay Service Reviews 700. I don't recommend torts for beginners, they do require much space as they love to explore, and they require more care than the RES. I also don't recommend mixing dogs with torts or turts, there are cases when the bambara theme essay, torts bite the dog in an exploratory manner, and the dog ended up chewing up the buy essay cheap, torts.
Torts poop big and unlike dogs, they cannot be trained, so keeping them like you keep your dogs indoors is not recommended. I may not be the best pet-keeping person in the lesson bambara theme essay the world, as some of my pets died prematurely and some died after a long life. I did the some basically same mistakes the writer of the article did, and I don't blame him. He tried, I tried, my equipment for keeping the pets are more rudimentary compared to his, lacking vets too (they are expensive, you know,) but we love our pets. Buy Research Moderation And Happiness. My word of advice, consider something more general, like a dog, a cat, a rabbit, a mice, or a hamster, before deciding on a reptile as a pet. I found a small two inch long turtle near my house, not knowing what to do, I brought it home, made a small pond for it, tried to the lesson by toni essay feed it with pellets, but it does not like it, then found some earthworms, it happily eat earthworms. No idea what habitat it is papers cheap from and the lesson by toni cade bambara essay, how to cheap moderation keep it. I am from India.
I really don't think you should ever own any kind of pet again. By Toni Cade Bambara Theme. Ever. Cindy Hunnicutt 2 months ago. I am sorry, but my comment to get someone of leadership you is going to be mean. You sound like and idiot. You openly admit to going against cade bambara essay, your vets advice and let your sick tortoise die.
You didn't realize that turtles are quite expert diggers and were surprised it got out and escaped. Get Someone Write My Paper. I am certainly not an expert on reptiles, but a little basic knowledge and the lesson by toni cade bambara theme, common sense would help you. Library. You sound like you haphazardly went about cade having a turtle or tortoise and knew better than everyone else including your vet and they suffered for it. You definitely should not have a pet anything. So I found a turtle hatchling in cheap my pool filter, he was alive. I set up a nice little habitat for him, he was doing quite well, eating well, etc. I had him for about two months, and by toni essay, he had grown quite a bit. I set up a bigger habitat, unfortunately I got a little lax about checking places he could get stuck.
Last night, he got stuck between a rock and the side of his tub, he drowned. I have been incredibly upset about it all day, as it was my fault. I feel just terrible. He had been doing so well, swimming all around, climbing up on his log to bask, eating well. I had always made sure there were no places he could get stuck, but I missed a spot. Get Someone Virtues. Actually it was an area where he could have gotten out when he was a bit smaller, but as he's grown lately, he didn't make it out. The Lesson By Toni Cade. It was just horrible to find him. Buy Research Papers Online The Fiftieth Gate Essay. I love little critters, I have actually seen a couple of these tiny little things squashed on the road.
Our pond is full of cade theme essay, turtles, which I feed, along with the fish. The bad thing about the pond is that any little creatures, such as baby ducks or baby turtles, get pretty quickly eaten by the big catfish, big turtles, and the herons, hawks, and online the fiftieth, owls that frequent it. So when I find something like a live baby turtle, I want to help it grow thrive. Next time, I will be diligent about keeping the tub or aquarium safe. The Lesson By Toni Cade Bambara Essay. Sad day. Cheap Economics. People should really actually READ the article. First, every reptile lover can tell you that you don't need nearly that much space. From Reptiles Magazine.
A 30-gallon tank is the absolute minimum size for smaller species measuring between 4 and the lesson cade bambara theme essay, 6 inches. For turtles between 6 and 8 inches, a 55-gallon tank is online appropriate. And for the lesson cade bambara theme, turtles measuring more than 8 inches, tanks in the 75- to 125-gallon range are a better choice. According to papers online moderation this article, it would require 3-4x the the lesson cade bambara theme essay, tank size. That's grossly incorrect. Buy Essay Online. The writer admits to leaving the turtle out with a dog around, then surprised when the the lesson by toni bambara essay, dog, a hunting animal, killed it. The writer admits to IGNORING THE VETS ADVICE about a habitat, and then being surprised when it died. Constantly says pet-trade is dangerous, but the help, pet trade today has practically zero effect on the invasiveness of species. Back a few decades, they'd import the animals en masse, then release them when no one bought them. On top of that, nowadays, there are many places that will adopt turtles and other reptiles that you can no longer care for. You don't have to release them into the lesson by toni cade theme the wild, on top of that, releasing an best writing 700 animal that was bred in cade captivity is a death sentence.
The moral of this article isn't don't get a pet turtle/tortoise - It's The person who wrote this article is buy research papers cheap gate essay terrible at bambara theme essay, taking care of economics, pet turtles and tortoises and tries to by toni cade theme essay scare people away with their horror stories. Who do you think cleans the cpm homework library images, pond water turtles live in . Noone . I only change my turtles water when its cloudy every few months been doing this with him since i got him for over 10 years . I also have 3 other turtles i have adopted over the years . Cade. Only turtles i had die on me were bc my original turtle picked on them . The Fiftieth Essay. 120 dollars worth of turtles gone 6 baby turtles gone turns out the lesson cade essay my original turtle needed to be with a girl who was bigger then him to be the boss lmao all he will eat is buy essay economics fish and pellets thats it . By Toni Cade. Where 2 of the others will eat almost any veggies and pelletts thats it no fish. My boyfriend and I have a 7-year old female red-eared slider turtle, she died last night. If I have read this article before we bought my red red-eared slider, his tragic death could have been avoided. Buy Research Online The Fiftieth Gate. We prayed and by toni essay, beg for her forgiveness for being such a lousy owner. In this few months my boyfriend only change the water once a week(with a underwater filter). Buy Research Cheap Moderation And Happiness. The temperature here at the lesson bambara, the Philippines is buy research online so high 86.0 F. Her male red-eared slider companion is still alive and the lesson by toni cade theme, about 6 years old by now. Is it still worth if we keep the male one or do we need to set him free? I am very depressed and scared that the male slider might die too. :'( Thank you so much for cheap economics, this article. I just stumbled across it and your article has saved a lot of stress and theme essay, heartache.
I wanted to get a turtle for my little girl but on reading this article and weighing up all the options, it's not the right pet for us. Thank you so much for buy research the fiftieth essay, saving us a lot of heart ache. The Lesson By Toni Cade Bambara Theme. Wtf. I've had my hermanns tortoise for over 10 years now and he was my very first pet. By the sounds of it your just a shitty owner. Online Cheap Economics. not sure how you could mess up so badly that it resulted in by toni bambara theme the deaths of so many innocent souls. Please refrain from buying anymore pets or even having children for that matter. Moaning for my pet turtle 5 months ago. Me too.
If I have read this article before I bought my red ear slider, his tragic death could have been advoided. He passed on today. Struggled with RI and fungal infection. He is buy research papers online cheap very brave and I am very proud of him. I prayed and beg for his forgiveness for being such a lousy owner. In the first few months I only change the water once a week(with a underwater filter). The fish tank is too small and by toni cade theme essay, the busking light too near to him. Cpm Homework Help Images. I have learnt my mistake and I will definitely think twice about keeping one again. Btw after I fed him fresh prawn and fish(which was about two weeks after I brought him home), he totally reject turtle food.
Wonder is the lesson by toni cade theme that a common trend, or that he is just too picky. Buy Essay Online. turtlepie101 6 months ago. i am doing a report on why dogs are better than turtles this helped a lot thanks. lauren,, I, absolutely agree,, a, tortoise,, is, a lifetime commitment. of love.. and by toni bambara essay, care..and more long after. and very special indeed, and for those.. who may not be able. to have annual checkups with a specialized vet, .. a tortoise, is get someone not really a pet, it is an by toni environmental challenge.. and so very acute of any changes.. and still.. the pages of Veterinary médecine,, have so much to.. discover..Yet, the more people.. such as you.. guide us.. and spell your input.. We. will be able.. to buy research papers cheap the fiftieth read, learn, and comprehend, the fragile. and distinctive challenges they face, in their optimal fragile and respective conditions.. The Lesson Bambara Theme Essay. I'm in total agreement about thinking tortoises can thrive when taken out of their natural climates. Red Foots need humidity. very hard to maintian the high level of humidity for 3/4 of the PA year. Every Red Foot Guide/Book suggests the proper measurement of soils and buy research papers online cheap and happiness, sphagnum moss for substrate. I came to find out the lesson by toni bambara essay that living in the same soil, only virtues of leadership breeds illness. The Lesson By Toni Cade Bambara. When I was advised to take out the help library, soil and replace it with newspaper, breathing became quiet almost immediately. Unless you are a millionaire, living in PA, pets aren't going to have the flowers and cactus that they eat in South America.
Do people know there are differences between tropical and Southern Tortoises? People can keep just about anything alive, but it's foolhardy to the lesson by toni essay take species out of their natural habitat and expect them to help library bloom where they're planted. By Toni Bambara Essay. They're not dogs. today i just realized that i wanted a tortoise. i even started a presentation. but now that i read this, i'm not sure that i even want a pet tortoise anymore because i realized how much room it took up, and i have no idea how to care for get someone write my paper of leadership, one. the the lesson by toni bambara, fact that it carries diseases completely destroyed what i wanted. thank you so much for knocking some reality into me ;) My dream is to own a second turtle. Get Someone. but I am 12 and I have a separate room for the turtle, I am a girl who does research before I do my actions. I have you know I have loved them ever since I was 3 I was obsessed with these beautiful creatures, I am not sure how much more posts I can take. of people saying things like this. They make a great pet,I should know I had a turtle for 8 years then the neighbors brought there dog on a get together and then the dog ate my turtle. Thanks so much for your advice! Great article that will help me to make a decision. I hope I don't upset anyone with this post.. I saw a movie called cannibal holocaust where a poor turtle was mercilessly murdered. I was so upset by it, it made me want to buy a turtle of by toni cade, this type and care for one but after reading here how hard it is to care for one I better think twice.
I see everyone mentioning all kinds of turtles but I never seen the buy essay economics, type of the lesson cade bambara theme essay, turtle from this horrible movie mentioned. It was a yellow spotted river turtle and my paper of leadership, quite large which means it was probably 60 years or older. Why kill something that already lived so long. Made me want to really hunt down that actor and the director, even though the movie was made in 1980. I know it was real cause they killed six other animals in the lesson cade essay that movie, but the turtle got to me the most. I'm a horror movie buff but never saw that coming or I wouldn't have watched it in buy research cheap and happiness the first place.
Anyway, I take it that this species of turtle is extremely hard to care for. Bambara Theme. Just looking for thoughts and feedback since I know everyone here likes or even own turtles and buy essay economics, can give more info on by toni theme, the yellow spotted river turtle.. Thanks for reading my rant. Ben Zoltak 12 months ago. Effect Essay Topics. tejas, sounds like you have some beautiful tortoises and quite a dilemma. The Lesson By Toni Theme Essay. if it's legal in effect and cause essay your area you can sell them to someone better suited to take care of them. There may be an animal rescue in the area that might also take them, I've heard zoos almost never do, although those are so rare maybe it wouldn't hurt to ask? Veterinarians and naturalists more skilled than I say not to leave them in the wild for the lesson, fear of get someone write my paper, introducing disease to the native reptile population.
I hope that helps my friend. I have two star turtles from more than 6 years. now they are alost 12 inch long. and the maintainance for him is cade almost not passible. suggest me what to do with them. should i leave them in buy research cheap gate essay wildlife or in zoo.. please suggest me on my mail id. By Toni Theme Essay. email@example.com. Reviews. Ben Zoltak 12 months ago from by toni essay Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Nagato, Susanah and Jonnie, thanks for sharing your experiences with turtles. Sounds like you're on your way to keeping good care of essay topics, more.
Yes, more space is always better, they can survive in a minimum, but you run a higher risk of stressing them out and the lesson by toni cade bambara theme essay, getting turtles and tortoises more sick. I've had to learn the hard way about online essay how important water temperature is. By Toni Cade Bambara. I lost 3 turtles (2 red ear sliders and cpm homework images, a soft shell) the soft-shell became sick and died, getting the 2 others sick and they later died. It was an the lesson cade bambara theme essay idiotic mistake on best service 700, my part because I already had snapper and red ear, and they're still alive and well. Snappers are pretty strong. I have 2 snappers, one red ear and a baby yellow belly that my mother and sister bought from Florida as a gift. I don't need anymore turtles. The snapping turtles are going to be a lot of work once they're fully grown but I don't think they'll get that big.
One is a baby, probably about 4 inches and the lesson by toni bambara theme, the other one is about 2-3 years old and is about 6-7 inches. Best Service. All of my turtles are kept seperately. Cade. I'll eventually move the effect and cause, yellow belly with red ear in a bigger tank once it has grown. It's still a baby. They all eat well, I give them live fish, fruits and veggies. I will buy one I have money space whatever you want. divesh panjwani 14 months ago. sir your posts was so awesome and the lesson theme essay, kmowledgeable thank you for sharing with us.
I grew up with a tortoise called Shelly. He must have been some kind of African tortoise. My parents rescued him from some dogs near our farm when I was a baby. We built him a huge compound in our backyard, fed him cabbage and watermelon and buy essay online cheap, occasionally let him out to explore the rest of the garden. He hibernated by himself and even let us wake him up from time to time. Never got salmonella poisoning, never had any health issues. He got massive! Had to give him away after the divorce.
I now deffinitely want to get a another one, thinking it was really easy the first time, but now I guess it had more to do with him being a sturdy breed and having all that space. Cade Theme. Maybe the reason they die is because they get depressed? Guess I'll have to buy essay online economics wait till I have a house with a backyard. Wish I'd read this before taking my friends Turtle. I took it like 11 years ago. :-( red eared sliders. By Toni Bambara Theme. The one died in like a month. when she gave it to me he had soft shell so I separated them and he died. The other one is kicking it at like 7 inches in just shell. Buy Essay Online Economics. Ben Zoltak 2 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA.
Thanks Jo! The Russians are the northermost of all tortoise species from what I've read, and the lesson by toni cade bambara essay, they also live as far south as Afganistan! Really glad to hear they're doing well! Hey nice article! This is papers cheap the fiftieth gate essay pretty late but I agree that too many tortoises have died becaude of the lesson cade bambara theme, careless mistakes. Best Writing. I myself spent a lot of the lesson cade theme, time researching about russian tortoises before I owned two. They are still doing well and papers and happiness, are quite active after 6 years. Bambara Theme. Ben Zoltak 2 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA.
Tabbikat! So kind and thoughtful, thank you, this comment that you wrote is why I continue to leave this article published: I totally thought that you put a turtle in a tank and give it water and lettuce and that's it. I was so wrong! Thank you for enlightening me. My son will have to essay topics wait to by toni cade bambara theme essay make this decision when he is much older, and living in his own place. Lol I will be getting him something non-living for his birthday. Thank you for being upfront and honest. I do not want to get a pet that I can't care for!
It's not fair to the pet. Get Someone Write My Paper. God bless! Someday your son may be ready, and you too, maybe even before he gets his own place ;o) But if not, consider getting him a book about turtles/tortoises, or visiting a nature preserve or pond or zoo where there are tortoises. By Toni Cade Bambara. I know of a secret place in Madison, Wisconsin that's right in papers online moderation and happiness the city, hidden behind some willow trees in a very small creek, where many turtles congregate! It's great to observe them in their wild habitat. There are also several other places I know of where you can view giant aldabra and galapagos tortoises at essay, zoos and attractions. Thanks again for your comment, warms my heart to know people are considerate to get someone write my paper virtues of leadership others who bare their soul's mistakes about caring for turtles. So, my son ask for by toni bambara theme, a turtle for his birthday. Effect. He will be 6! He loves the by toni cade bambara essay, TMNT. I read a few articles from pet stores about all the good of having a turtle as a pet. (They just want to online make money so they are bias!) I also have a soon to the lesson by toni essay be 4 year old. After reading your article I will not be getting a turtle for my son.
He is WAY too young and frankly, I don't want the resposability either. We also have inside cats and a dog. I understand what one woman was saying about Samilela, that it's rare. I really don't care if it is rare, I don't want to buy research papers online take the chance with my kids so young! What good mom would? I totally thought that you put a turtle in the lesson bambara theme a tank and give it water and lettuce and that's it. And Cause. I was so wrong! Thank you for enlightening me.
My son will have to wait to make this decision when he is much older, and by toni cade bambara theme essay, living in his own place. Lol I will be getting him something non-living for his birthday. Thank you for being upfront and honest. Buy Research Gate. I do not want to get a pet that I can't care for! It's not fair to the pet. God bless!
Ben Zoltak 2 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Thank you Squam, for your expert observation about herps/reptiles related to the value of cade theme essay, this essay. Online. It's not that complicated. Most things you mentioned here are more than obvious for herpers/reptile owners. However for children, who think these animals are living rocks that only eat lettuce and by toni cade, move slow, everything here is worth reading by buy essay online economics, their parents.
Ben Zoltak 2 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. The Lesson Bambara Theme. Thanks Cassi, for sharing your experience with turtles, and the especially sensitive hatchlings. My kids found a baby turtle a few years ago at a public park. It was obviously newly hatched. Unfortunately, some older kids had viciously murdered his siblings and left smashed-turtle evidence all around. (They ran away as we approached) My kids were traumatized and freaked out at the thought of buy research cheap moderation and happiness, this survivor falling victim. I tried to scare him away, but he just sat there. I finally agreed (against my better judgement and the lesson by toni cade theme essay, probably in spite of the law) to take him home. warning my kids the best writing service reviews, whole way that it is really hard to keep wild baby aquatic turtles alive in captivity and the lesson cade bambara theme essay, telling them not to be surprised if he didn't make it. Well, here we are 3 years later with a healthy slider in a heated aquarium in our living room. I have to say, if it weren't for my knowledge of best essay service reviews, reptile care and some good friends who rehabilitate turtles, he wouldn't be alive.
UVB lights are a huge necessity that many people overlook. Water quality and tank size are important. The Lesson By Toni Essay. Turtles produce a lot of waste and effect and cause essay topics, require excellent filtration, and their tank needs to be cleaned regularly. Water temperature needs to be regulated and they need a designated basking area where they can get completely out of the by toni cade theme, water and dry themselves. Also, this little guy developed and images, abcess in the lesson by toni his neck last year. There are no reptile vets in our area, and buy essay online economics, he got so swollen he couldn't eat. Under the direction of a woman who rehabilitates turtles (not local), I literally had to the lesson cade bambara theme essay perform surgery on him myself. (Small incision in his neck with a sterile scalpel, remove all of the infection, clean with bentodine, treat water to prevent further infection. ) He is very healthy and cpm homework images, happy now, fortunately. (Aside from being undersize because we had a difficult time getting him to eat as a baby and the lesson by toni bambara theme, during the time he was suffering with the abcess) So, as you can see, I agree with you. Buy Research Papers Online Moderation. Turtles are not pets for by toni theme essay, the average person. They aren't an online cheap economics impulse buy. This one turtle has cost a few hundred bucks to house properly and feed. He's nearing his 3rd birthday and he has a 2 year old 'brother'. (A Map turtle. my kids thought he was lonely) They have an African clawed frog friend, a pleco, and 2 Cory cats too.
They all get along well. Again, I'd say the only reason for our success with them and their good health is my experience with reptiles and the help of the people I know. Ben Zoltak 2 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Cade Theme Essay. Thanks for sharing your experience and opinions on turtle care Manu. Turtle care might be difficult but it depends upon economics, pure luck. By Toni Cade Bambara. In my experience, the more you worry, the more they are prone to death. Some of them are diseased, so they won't survive no matter what you do. My second attempt at keeping turtles as pets is help successful. The Indian shopkeeper advised me to keep them in very less water with no land at all. A pair is more successful in captivity. Cade Bambara Theme. I feed them ordinary turtle food pellets only.
It's is been a year. Changing water 3 to 4 times a day helps. Essay Writing Reviews. Ben Zoltak 2 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. I have a lot of cowards that comment with hate mail on this essay, if they would have the bambara essay, courage enough to leave their name and place of business I'm sure I could answer them more appropriately. That was awesome. Ben Zoltak 2 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Hey ionatan, if you have any more specific questions, feel free to get someone write my paper virtues of leadership post them here and I'll see if I can answer them. Or if you find out any little-known info about sulcatttas please share with turtle owners here! Ben Zoltak 2 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Well the by toni bambara essay, good news is, ionatan, you clearly have access to the internet and essay 700, from there a wealth of information.
As I mentioned in my essay above, beware of relying only on one source, there is a lot of bad advice out there for all species of turtles and tortoise, but if you check at the lesson theme essay, least three or four different sources, much like anything, you will find consistencies that are illuminating. That being said, although the sulcatta may have arrived as an unprepared surprise, congratulations on becoming a steward to one of the worlds most beautiful creatures. I am not an expert on sulcattas so please double check my advice against papers online cheap and happiness, other sources. The Lesson Cade Theme. All chelonians need a temperature gradient made readily available to them. At least this means, a warm and a cool spot, at best this means a spectrum of papers cheap moderation and happiness, different temperatures, being cold blooded tortoises they need to the lesson by toni regulate their digestion and health by moving from a warmer to essay hotter to by toni cade theme cooler areas. Easily done in Arizona! A little more difficult in Wisconsin where our winters last what? Five months or so? Haha. But it can be done. Your sulcatta would be best housed in it's own room, at a minimum of writing service, 5 x 5' feet, with more being better in theme this case.
You can let the get someone my paper virtues, tortoise roam the house, but experts agree you are supposed to supervise them if they roam, then return them to their enclosure after some exercise. They also need UVA and cade theme, UVB lighting, which can be purchased online or from a pet store. Usually one fluorescent and essay, one heat lamp type. A thermometer in the enclosure will help you monitor it's environment. Ironically, indoor Wisconsin environments are probably close to it's dry, desert environment. Sulcattas, if I recall correctly are vegetarians, although I've owned vegetarians species that loved a little meat, it should be avoided in the lesson cade essay the main. Best Essay Service. Beware too much protein, beans and what not, they prefer fibery vegis, greens (avoid spinach, oxalic acid steals much needed calcium from them) I've heard regular alfalfa hay is the lesson bambara a good staple and effect essay, inexpensive. Otherwise, a diverse mix of vegis, including stubs from cauliflower/broccoli, lettuce (not too much iceberg), carrots, they all love dandelion greens that haven't been sprayed with pesticide of course. By Toni Cade Bambara Essay. They will eat your lawn like a lawn mower haha. Some sources say they can go for a long time without water, but I believe in captivity it's safer to make water regularly available to them. There's so much more!
But I have to go for a hike with my family now! I am a little jealous, sulcattas are sooooo coooool! Don't ever leave them alone with a dog fyi, they may lose a limb or two, or worse! Keep reading, buy a book or two! Kingsnake.com used to have some infor also, probably still do. So i stumbled across thid pafe in hopes of finding some information on how to care for a sculcata tortoise. I am in an interesting situation and from what I have researched so far, being in WI, its not the most suitable climate for these animals. Lets start by sharing how I got the essay topics, tortoise. So my son recently had a birthday and for a gift his grandparents decided to get him a turtle. The Lesson Cade Theme. Without any discussion from buy essay cheap us, his parents, to our surprise they showed up with a sculcata tortoise that at present must weigh around 20lbs and maybe 12-15 in lengt . Needless to say our first reaction was shock and thought maybe this was just a joke. We figured that maybe the tortoise was only visiting and would return home at the lesson by toni bambara theme essay, the end of the day.
As it became more apparent that it was indeed staying, we quickly started to write my paper research how to care for this new pet. After realizing this would be difficult, we thanked the grandparents for theme, such a thoughtful gift, but requested it be returned. Their reply was that they would take it home and reviews, care for it until our son got older and would like it back. I love my in-laws, but I dont think they are any better suited to care for the tortoise than we are. Bambara Essay. Plus finding out that returning yhe tortoise may not be an option since the pet store they got it from is closing, we now need to figure out virtues how to care for the pet. I guess I am looking for some insight on what the best accomodations I can provide to give the tortoise a long, healthy life being in this wonderful WI climate? Ben Zoltak 2 years ago from cade theme essay Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Well said Gillian, keep up the good husbandery! Glad you are an advocate who uses caution for others of unknown experience!
Greeks look SO COOL! Totally nerdilicious torts! gillian moore 2 years ago. Sorry but i don't agree with the 10 nos. I've had a greek tort for papers cheap moderation, more than three years and i love it. However i must admit that not any person can deal with a tortoise: they do NOT have the capablity of a dog or a cat, let alone the brains. The Lesson By Toni Theme. But if you like torts i believe you can learn to deal with them.
Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from buy research papers the fiftieth gate Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Talia, I've heard a lot about the mistreatment of parrots too, very intelligent animals, similar to owning a toddler or small child I would bet. Bambara. Turtles and tortoises are at least somewhat more autonomous, although like any intelligent creature, they enjoy enrichment too. Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from best essay service reviews Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. I have had several similar scenarios too Kathy, and it's tragic. You feel that you're doing them a favor by getting them outside, only to enter them into cade theme a less-than-secure situation. It's as though in many circumstances, people would need a locked wrought iron enclosure or a moat! Thank you for sharing your experience! I stumbled upon essay, this article while researching whether or not *I* would be a good candidate for tortoise owner. This gave me a lot to think about although I am not entirely surprised.
As the former owner of large, exotic birds I know all too well how blindly some people go into exotic pet ownership. Parrot rescues are absolutely overflowing with physically and by toni essay, emotionally stunted birds. It's rare to find someone that truly has the time, space and knowledge needed in order to keep an exotic pet healthy and happy. kathy Doubleu 3 years ago. Buy Essay. I agree with you, I too have had my aquatic turtles for 3 years, they were doing pretty well until I decided this summer to put them outside in what I felt was a secure enviornment, within a month they both disappeared either they climbed out, someone stole them.I feel it's the second choice as I have lawn guys in my yard weekly and they just happened to the lesson disappear on the day they come. I am heart broken, not just for my loss but for the safety of essay writing service, those gentle creatures. They are like dogs, interacting with humans for the lesson theme essay, food. But it's not worth their lives. Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA.
Yeah Indian Stars are very rare from what I gather Kaustubh. I've heard ( I have no references handy. ) that breeders of the star are careful not to flood the market with hatchlings because it helps keep the effect, price up. They are beautiful and I would imagine they need a fairly narrow heat gradient if you research where they are from, not to mention most likely a very specific diet. Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from by toni theme essay Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Living in a dry, desert environment at least gives you some good options, since many species do well there. Certainly the choices you need to make, in order to keep a tortoise healthy in best essay reviews arid conditions are vital! I wish you a lot of luck Heather, with solid research from more than one ( at least three ) sources you should be able to make some very informed decisions!
Thank you so much for cade theme, giving me some good food for best service reviews 700, thought!! I intend on getting my son a pet by the time he turns 12 or so and he is the lesson bambara essay 5 now. sounds strange to start thinking about it now but I especially love turtles and I want to have ample time to research carefully, make a wise decision as to what kind will fit best and prepare so that our family can provide everything necessary for it. Write Virtues Of Leadership. ive had an array of exotic pets (even horned lizards etc) but i know from by toni theme essay experience now that the tragedy that follows an write my paper virtues unprepared and theme, uninformed pet friend is more than i want to experience again. I live in a very harsh, hot desert environment and i need to think carefully before I act impulsively and devastate my children as I was when my mom bought me fish tank frogs as a child that I repeatedly starved to cpm homework help library images death, sadly by feeding them the wrong food! Lol. By Toni Bambara Essay. Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Papers Cheap And Happiness. Mk, glad you've had a great experience with Chelonians. A vet once told me a lot depends on the individual animal.
Some won't eat well, some are prone to being sick. The Lesson Cade Bambara Theme. Blu, a lot of buy research online moderation and happiness, truth in what you say, alas some people are great stewards of reptiles and chelonians in the lesson by toni bambara theme essay particular, and so I'm grateful for write, them, as most species natural habitat are consistently being decimated by the lesson, homo sapiens sapiens. Ana, truth. Cpm Homework Help Library Images. A whole lotta poo! Ironically it's a good thing in a way, says they're healthy! I have an answer for you too. That liquid is gold, if as you say, you have the power-strength for it. Pour it into a jug and let it sit for a month and you have strong, potentially organic liquid compost for house plants and gardens. The Lesson By Toni Cade Bambara Theme. One last item. my son and I captured a nickel-sized hatchling painter this year, held onto it for a day. Buy Research And Happiness. My son begged and the lesson by toni bambara, pleaded his case for keeping. We instead released it on the same lake we found it (albeit a little closer to our house ;u) ) A few months later we saw a small tortoise off the pier we released it near, about essay topics double the size and covered in some algae looking healthy and happy.
We're so lucky to live near a turtles natural home, and to just visit him like a neighbor. Be we fellow turtle people. Thank you for your complete honestly. If I would have read this article before my lovely mother in law bought my son a baby red slider turtle 3 years ago, without my permission by by toni cade bambara theme essay, the way. I would have told her to take his butt back to cpm homework help library images the pet store that day. 3 years later the baby is not so cute and tiny anymore but seems to crap all day. We have accommodated his growing and his eating habits and i am not ashamed to say, i give up. I finally had to tell my mother in law to take the turtle home with her.
I am a total animal lover but this is theme one animal i would never recommend unless you have the online cheap and happiness, space, time and the lesson cade bambara theme, man power. Effect Essay. (strength) because as soon as that tank is clean, this fool craps right away. Dont buy tortoises or tirtles trust me. They are the worst pets. Just dont do it. They r the ones who end up suffering not you.
I have had my tortoise for six years now and I haven't had any problem's with feeding it a correct diet or keeping it at the correct temp so I don't agree with what your saying as long as you have experience I think you can have any pet within reason :) Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Glad to the lesson bambara theme essay hear it City Kitty. I had the best luck with Red Foot tortoises. Unfortunaetly I made a couple common, bone-headed mistakes. But they ate well and cheap, were active and health. Thanks for sharing your experience. I don't think it's that hard to raise a tortoise. Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA.
Kalifornia, so sorry to hear of the loss of cade bambara theme, a Hermans. Get Someone. Personally I haven't met anyone who has cared for one (someone I knew had a similar Forsten's tortoise many years ago, that she inherited and was already well acclimated). Thank you for aknowledging the difficulties involved here, I have received many insults and even a few thinly veild threats from the lesson cade bambara essay writing this article, mainly from disreputable reptile dealers. I know very little about Hermans, other than remembering they have a specialized diet. If you should happen to best writing 700 care to by toni cade bambara theme essay try again, might I recommend a red eared slider or a red-footed tortoise, both are very durable and less picky eaters.
Although both have higher humidity requirements than the get someone write my paper virtues of leadership, Hermans did I believe. Be well, and enjoy reptiles in the wild any chance you get. A few years ago I found my secret spot in the lesson bambara theme essay Madison, Wisconsin where about a dozen turtles congregate in an old creek behind some disused industrial buildings. OMG I wish I found this before we got our Hermann Tortoise!! I thought I did plenty of virtues, research before. By Toni Cade Theme. I did hours upon my paper virtues of leadership, hours just trying to the lesson by toni cade theme figure out buy research online which kind to get, which would best suited to our environment and what would be easiest to the lesson cade bambara theme essay care for. Virtues. We were told and read in several places that the Hermanns were beginner tortoises. To that I say, NOT HARDLY. We had what we felt was an appropriate habitat going by recommendations on various sites, we thought we fed her enough of the right foods, we grew her her own garden, she had heat lamps/UV lamps PLUS we live in a warm, temperate climate where she can enjoy the outdoors and STILL 2 months in, she died. Cade Theme Essay. I can not even begin to write my paper virtues of leadership explain the cade bambara essay, utter sadness in this house right now (she was my 10 yr olds bday present and we loved this little tortoise like it was family).
Coolest pet ever for sure but seriously people. And Cause Essay Topics. they require SO much specialized care it's not even funny. The Lesson By Toni Cade Theme Essay. I'm an buy essay online economics animal rescuer and have saved hundreds of animals from the brink of death and nursed them back to health and yet not even I could give that tortoise what it needed to survive!! I'm shocked and saddened and guilt ridden for not taking care of the lesson cade theme essay, her the way she needed and my kids are basket cases! Word to the wise, get your Ph.D. in chelonian husbandry and THEN consider getting one. They are awesome creatures and deserve only the best care, if you're not 150% ready, please don't do it! I think people can successfully keep turtles/tortoises but I will go out on a limb and cpm homework library images, say that the people selling it to you will give you, at most, 1% of info you need to know to raise it properly. You need mad amounts of by toni cade bambara theme, books, many online sources and at least join a turtle/tortoise forum so you have support ready at hand.
If you're on service, the fence, don't do it or at least not until you're ready. We definitely won't be getting another. Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from the lesson by toni bambara essay Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Hey Ramon, thank you for your kindness about my experiences with turtles and tortoises, I wish you and get someone write, any new creatures under your care well. Captive bred Leopard tortoises will be a good species to explore. By Toni Bambara Theme Essay. As far as I can tell they have a stable captive population (avoid wild caughts, some breeders say they are CB when they are actually Wild caught, a quick bing/google search should verify a breeders reputation for effect topics, telling the the lesson bambara essay, truth). Leopards are beautiful, live long, have a similar diet as sulcattas, and service reviews 700, are low humidity, and by toni cade bambara, are about half the size. Get Someone Write Of Leadership. Although with hatchlings I believe they need more humidity (warm gradient) for the lesson by toni bambara theme essay, some time. Buy Essay Online Cheap. Hi huge tortoise fan love them Ive owned 1 tort it was a baby suculta it died after a year due to weather(lived near the by toni cade, beach) Im thinking about getting another one or 2 so they can keep eachother company. Buy Research Online Gate. But i dont know what kind after skipper died(name of dead tort) i found out if he lived he would have become HUGE and i coundnt do with that. I want something 6-10 inches, hardy, and cade bambara theme, not something that will be big on humidity.
I totally agree with the articale i had no idea the mess i was getting in to when i was buying one now im older and have read alot more on these wonderful creatures. please recommend a type to me so i can research it and if down for best essay writing reviews 700, it adopt one. The Lesson Bambara Theme. Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Well said Sarah! A calling, indeed! They do have beautiful eyes, both in Madison, Wisconsin and online cheap and happiness, Chicago, Illinois I've hung out with zoo Red Foots, next to their misters! Thank you for the warm response.
I have 2 Redfoots and the lesson by toni, I want to thank you for this hub page. I got them as very small hatchlings and buy essay online, they are almost 2 yrs old and thriving now. The Lesson By Toni Bambara. Redfoots are NOT easy unless you live in a rain forest. Hatchlings are very fragile. They have a narrow window in terms of their humidity and write, temperature needs. The Lesson Cade Bambara Theme. They need at least 85 to 90 degrees F and 80 to buy essay cheap economics 90% humidity. It's not easy creating hot rain in an apartment. They require constant rotation in cade theme their diet so you must introduce different greens all the time. It's a labor of library images, love, maybe even a calling.
The payoff is huge when they turn those gentle eyes on you. but PLEASE research what you are attempting to undertake. Ben Zoltak 3 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. By Toni Cade Theme Essay. Nebs, I wonder are they sulcattas? Just curious, as I've heard they are very difficult to help library rehome because of their proliferation. I've seen the the lesson cade bambara theme, humping you mention! Not pretty, haha, but lonely creatures need lovin however they can find it I guess. Get Someone Write Virtues. I'd say, get the word out theme among trusted friends if you want to rehome them, you may find a way. If I had a little more money, I'd drive out papers online moderation their and get them myself. Did I mention I published an ebook: Your Life As A Painting ( ;o) ) Hope things work out for your tortoises, at least they have California weather! My husband has two great big turtles and I'm absolutely sick of all of by toni bambara theme essay, them (husband included).
Now I read that even a zoo will not take the turtles. This makes me sad because I really would like my husband to get rid of them. Online Cheap Economics. We cannot afford to feed them anymore since they have become so large. They make a lot of noise too because, although they are both male, they hump each other. The neighbors are complaining about the noise which makes for a very uncomfortable situation. The Lesson By Toni Theme. When we lived in online cheap the fiftieth gate WA, they were fine because they had a very large pen in which to roam around and a nice warm shed in which to sleep.
Now that we are in CA, the turtle situation is cade bambara essay awful. I agree with the author, think twice before getting turtles as pets. Ben Zoltak 4 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Of Leadership. Thanks Suzanne, I sure have made a lot of turtle sellers mad with this article! To be clear, I believe turtles and tortoises can be great pets actually, but they take a lot, and I mean A LOT more care than some would have you believe. Maybe in your area you can spot some wild turtles or some in the lesson by toni theme zoos? Glad I could help be a part of your daughters research, sounds like a smart cookie, I hope she continues, there is so much to learn about chelonians! My daughter asked if she could get a tortoise.
We are homeschoolers so I told her she needed to research, do a presentation and convince me why our family should own a tortoise. She read your article and help images, changed her mind. Thank you. Ben Zoltak 4 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Thanks Shay for your kind words and keen observations. We do have snakes around here, mostly pretty small ones though. I've finally got a place where I could really make a great enclosure so I will take your suggestion to the lesson bambara theme heart and reinforce it on the sides and secure a top if ever I build one and get another turtle. I love North American Woods, they have been my favorite for years. We watched an essay writing 700 Asian Wood a few years ago, he was fun too.
Ah, still thinking about it. I grew up on a farm with dogs, cats, and other animals. I have had several pet turtles and they all did fine. In the house and outside in there enclosure. The Lesson Cade Theme. In the house it helps if they have there own room and if your not home you should never let them roam freely. Help Library. As for the out side enclosure, you should put a top on the lesson, it as well as chicken wire on bottom and coverd it with dirt. Online Cheap. I take extra care and lined the cade bambara essay, sides and and cause topics, top of the pin with poulty fence. It has much smaller holes so snakes can't get in with your turtle. Just a few suggestions in cade bambara case you get another turtle. Ben Zoltak 4 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA.
Yep, I did. Still can't bring myself to cheap moderation and happiness buy another pet turtle. But, I observe them in by toni cade theme the wild all the online the fiftieth essay, time. By Toni Cade Bambara Essay. Just moved to an area that has one of the rare North American soft shell turtles too, I am lucky and blessed. Thanks for letting me know about the East coast boxies Aaron, that warms my heart, you are incredibly lucky. I've never found a box turtle in the wild. I was lucky enough to spot several Florida Gopher tortoises though, about online and happiness a decade a go.
It sound to me like you just did some very stupid stuff while caring for your turtles, it happens i had a yellow belly slider who got sick and i thought it was going to die but it ended up live for several years before I had to find a new home for cause it out grow the 40gal tank i had. I thought you would like to know that box turtles are thriving on the lesson by toni cade bambara essay, the east coast. I find them in the wild all the time. Ben Zoltak 5 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Thanks for all the comments! Buy turtles! Buy tortoises!
They're awesome, beautiful creatures, just find out cpm homework help library what they need specifically. It's true Red Eared Sliders are tough, but they need good environments too, it's one thing to survive, it's another for your chelonian to thrive. The Lesson By Toni Cade Theme Essay. If a tortoise wanders near your home, that is a good omen. Be well, tortoisefiles. I knew someone that had a red earred slider for nearly 10 years. Fed it sporatically, mostly just pellets. Didn't have a heat lamp; I would guess room temp was usually 60-75. Best Writing Reviews 700. Seldom changed the water. The Lesson Theme Essay. Turtles are a very hearty animal. I would suggest not getting one because they live forever.
I was given a RES turtle and we found out the best reviews, first week that she had a respiratory infection, we took her to the vet and gave her the prescribed antibiotics. She did not get better, only worse, now she has pneumonia and rocks in cade bambara theme essay her GI tract that we found after we took x-rays. Now she is on three different medicines. What are her chances of survival? Is it worth it to get the and cause essay topics, stones surgically removed if she can't pass them herself? can u explain tortoise came near to my home its good or bad to my family? My wife really wants a tortoise. By Toni Cade Theme. She has since college. After reading this, I'm torn. Help!
Ben Zoltak 5 years ago from papers cheap moderation Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Bambara Theme. Stay strong Spring! Sending you good vibes and prayers lady friend, (((hugs))) back at you! TYTY: we love turtles and tortoises here, we're just trying to make sure people know what they're doing before they go out and get someone write my paper virtues, buy one so that they are better taken care of is the lesson by toni cade bambara all. Thank you Ben Tushar.
I like that live long prosper Tushar, I embrace your hope for me Ben, it's gems like this that get me through my day and every day is different so I hear the online cheap the fiftieth gate essay, same things said differently every day. Some days it's hard to care when I'm in a boatload of pain, but the next day is usually better and that's the day I appreciate life more and the lesson by toni cade bambara theme essay, all the people in it. Get Someone Write My Paper. It's a hard realization knowing that pain can be so destructive to ones own mind ( I thought I ws stronger than to succumb). Now I understand it better and direct my focus away from the darkness. The Lesson Cade Theme Essay. (((hugs)))) Ben Zoltak 5 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. I hear you Spring and I understand most of all I hope you get well! thanks for your help ben. Cheap Moderation And Happiness. smiles. The Lesson Cade. Get well soon spring pace. my best wishes are with you. live long and prosper. Thanks my friend, hard to know which treatment is the best, so I am comingling the chemo radiation w/ eastern practices for buy essay online cheap economics, health and stability while I go throuh the treatment program. I think any choice I make has it's risks, but no riskier than what I have already and less risky than if I did nothing at all.
I have a great support base and am diligently NOT reading up on the lesson by toni, the subject because there are so many varying opinions and I'm already dizzy from what little I do know. My support groups have been holding me close and upright, and has been the most effective so far. Life is at of leadership, best a crap shoot and I will accept whatever outcome it brings but not before I'm finished, I don't give up, nor do I give in, I choose my fights, I don't let those get chosen for me to the best of my ability. ((((hugs))))), Spring. Ben Zoltak 5 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Ah Spring, may the Great Spirit hold you tight in her arms. The coincidence of your post is poignant as my daughter lost her mother to cervical cancer a little over ten years ago. Cade Bambara Theme. She had precancerous cells then tried to harvest the last of her eggs for her fiancé via hormones and surgical procedure which only exacerbated the write my paper virtues, problem. My daughter created one of the first facebook pages on the subject: Anyway, good vibes and spiritual blessings to you. Please do not be afraid to by toni cade bambara theme essay seek out alternative cancer treatment, from effect and cause topics one turtle island resident to another, please look into Vitamin C treatment as a possibility. A %50 cure rate is possible through Gerson therapy, but it is highly controversial.
Recall though that radiation and chemotherapy are both known to cause cancer. Be careful where you tread here my friend, you have walked into a path where health and the lesson by toni cade bambara essay, profit commingle detrimentally. Ben Zoltak 5 years ago from moderation and happiness Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. DT Well put and thank you for the heads up on your reputable breeder. RES's are the mules of the turtle trade it seems, they are beautiful reptiles and delightfully well rounded turtles. The Lesson Cade Bambara Theme Essay. Always glad to be of service Ben. My life has taken a huge unforeseen left turn this past month.
I was diagnosed w/ Stage 3c cervical cancer due to the Human Pavllova virus I got probably over 20 years ago. I'm only mentioning this here because there is now a vaccine for young girls against HPV that will make cervical cancer one of the cancers that can be totally eradicated from the long list of cancers. Girls, cervical cancer is painful, if you feel ANYTHING out of the ordinary like an unexplained belly ache, please go see your GYN ASAP. Catching it early is key, mine has metastized so making mine more complicated and the treatment will be aggressive. Boyfriends, dads, husbands please be aware of buy essay cheap, your girls changes and when they say they don't feel good for the lesson by toni bambara, too many days in a row (I'd say a week) make an appt for your loved one. All cancers affect everyone close to you, be proactive in the most kind and loving way you know how to.
I know that you will have to cpm homework help approve this before it is posted Ben, I sure hope you do because if I can help a few women then it's time well spent reading this. Essay. ((((hugs)))) cuz I don't know how many more I have left in my lifetime and online cheap economics, smiles because they are healing in themselves, Spring. Bambara. If anyone wants a turtle I recommend a red eared slider from writing reviews 700 turtleshack.com these people know what they are doing. Essay. And Ben #11 should be theyer not too expencive to buy, but when your into them as much as I am they are a little pricey. Buy Research Papers Online And Happiness. Like for instance my turtle was $21 from my local pet shop and over a short period of time turned into hundreds so just be able to shell out extra money if need be to keep your little guy happy and healthy. Ben Zoltak 5 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA.
Thanks again Spring Pace for your constant vigilance regarding our chelonian friends. Kjarvi31 . I think many people feel the the lesson bambara theme essay, way you do! Good for you realizing this, time to do some real soul searching before adopting a turtle/tortoise. Effect Essay. Some need more care than others. tushar . from what I understand RES's are some of the cade theme, most voracious (really hungry) turtles out there, so they will eat and eat and eat . but this doesn't mean he should still be fed to the point where he gets overweight. Also, don't be afraid to get someone write of leadership look up fresh fruits and cade bambara theme, vegis for best essay 700, your friend. The Lesson By Toni Essay. Alexooo . I love your turtle names, just like the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, love it. Also, if he's hissing, at least you know he's healthy! Bobbiemy . Well, as cute as your Russian is write virtues of leadership I still wouldn't sleep with him, not hygienic! In your tropical environment the Russian could possibly run into humidity related problems, but the the lesson cade essay, Russian's range is very broad and I would guess that he will be fine. Papers Cheap Moderation. An interesting conundrum but not one you should worry over I believe.
I have a Russian Tortoise and have been allowing her to cade sleep with me as she enjoys the warmth- now after reading your article Im confused. Best Essay Reviews 700. she has a habitat but likes to roam the the lesson cade essay, house and I live in a very tropical area - the temp is the same all year round except it gets hotter in the summer- what should I do and I have had her for about 3 months now and just love her to death I take her out best service reviews 700 20 minutes every other day and feed her once a day as well as give her a soak every other day. Help now Im freaking out --- her movements are regular and she has clear eyes and has been checked by my vet to have no medical aliments but now Im worried. By Toni Cade Essay. great article by the way!:) I have 2 yellow bellied sliders - one boy, one girl.. the boy (Raphael) which i just recently purchased is only about a year and cheap moderation and happiness, a half old and is very crabby! always hissing, so I feel he's been mistreated in the past. I'll do my best to make him happy though like my girl (Donatello) who's about 4 years old! she is BEAUTIFUL! I absolute adore her! I took her off a friend as she had a small tank with no filter and no basking area!! she was very timid and her shell looked infected, now she has a bigger tank with all the facilities a terrapin would ask for:) and cade bambara essay, I am pleased to say she is a happy turtle, most research I've came across says that terrapins don't like to be handled but Donatello LOVES attention, unlike Raphael which is a shame cause I'd live to essay writing service reviews 700 see him 'come out his shell' ha! No pun intended :) but anyway thanks for the lesson by toni bambara essay, the great article, really enjoyed! i also wanted to buy research online the fiftieth gate know the correct diet for my red eared slider. i feed him twice a day with pellets which he finishes within no time . still he keeps on asking for more..i dont want him to bambara essay starve and i dont want him to overeat either because i've heard its harmful..he is one and a half years old. Hey! I've had many turtles in buy research online gate the past when I was younger and just recently thought about getting another couple but then I was struck with a feeling of worry that when I get them I will not want to constantly be taking care of them even though I know it wouldn't take hours ( since I have not had them in the lesson cade theme essay a while ), just wondering if you or anyone else has ever felt like this before getting a new turtle? your welcome Tushar, come spring time, he'll be sunning on buy essay online, deck and making you smile. thank you so much spring pace. Cade Theme. i appreciate your help..and you're right.. Writing Service. i barely see him swimning around. I would like to say that over 20 years ago I bought an Elongated Tortoise . The Lesson Bambara Theme Essay. I knew nothing at the time and never had a tortoise befor but, have had turtles.
I did my research by online the fiftieth gate, going to the local zoo for info. The Lesson Cade Bambara Theme Essay. The put me on the right track and stopped at the book store on images, the way home. Three day's later and the lesson by toni bambara theme, several book's were in my posseion. I edcated myself and didn't cut corners to take care of the cpm homework images, animal. I'm happy to say that 23 years latter the tortoise is by toni theme thriving well and has grown. I don't cut conners and shop for papers cheap essay, a variety of by toni theme, food. I plant a very large garden every year to and cause essay topics feed my several tortoise and cade, turttle's that I share my house with. The Elongated shared an appartment with me for several years before I bought a house so that I could have more reptiles. So don/t tell me that a Tortoise can't thrive in captivity.
Do your research before you purchase , if not leave the buy research papers and happiness, animals alone. Cade. Too many end up in best writing shelter's every year of neglect from the lesson by toni bambara essay stupid people or cheap one's who think an buy essay online economics animal that can outlive a human will thrive . SO DON'T BUY ONE! hey tushar, your Indian flap shell is omniverous, so the pellets will suffice in being a back up during the lean times.If you have a healthy ecosystem in your pond full of live food your turtle should be fine. Usually they estivate (type of hibernation) until hard times pass, they will burrow into the mud to keep themselves safe from the lesson by toni cade bambara harm, so don't be surprised if yours isn't swimming around for long periods of time during the buy research papers online cheap essay, hard cold. I got all this from Wikipedia, but more research should be done by the lesson by toni cade bambara theme essay, you for effect essay, better specifics, smiles. A lady at work offered her two red eared turtles because they weren't eating anymore. I figured they just needed attention so I gladly accepted them.
However, just by doing a little research I understood why they were not eating and it made me sad. By Toni Essay. They weren't in the proper proper environment, they were barely able to move in writing their tank, the water was cold, she even said they had not eaten since september! I went to the pet store and bought most of what they would need and now they love swimming in their new tank! I even had to buy a cream for their shell because it was shedding. After spending $150 unexpectedly, I discovered turtles need a specific environment to grow and diest their food.
Reason #. for not buying a turtle or turtoise: if it's to the lesson bambara theme amuse your 6 year old kid. Effect. i also have a red eared slider whose very close to my heart and he just completed a year in the lesson cade my house. he is help library very healthy n he is bambara theme essay soo soo adorable. and a few days back a friend gave me an indian flapshell turtle and he is living in a pond which is buy research papers online cheap situated outside in my garden. the the lesson by toni essay, problem is that the best essay writing, water in which he lives is very cold these days n i'm worried..will he be comfortable out there?? n will he be okay with those turtle pellets??n is there anything else that i should know about cade theme essay him? nice one ben. i hope people pay attention to this article of yours and take some good care of these lovely ,cute and innocent creatures. Ben Zoltak 5 years ago from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA. Thanks Spring Pace I'll check it out when I get the chance. I have a Critter page on FB that I share MY comments ONLY on from your hubpage. I always do my best writing when I'm responding to others, thanks for giving me that opportunity Ben, you started something good here, smiles. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Dec 10, 2017 The lesson by toni cade bambara theme essay,
essays on the lesson by toni, brain food About 200,000 years ago, when humans first appeared, they lived as hunter-gatherers in small nomadic bands of 25-35. About 50,000 years ago, in apparently a single ‘dispersal', they migrated out of Africa where they had originated, into Arabia and online and happiness, southern Asia, then to Malaysia, Australia, and New Guinea, not reaching Europe until perhaps 40 to 45,000 years ago. No matter where they settled, whether in the lesson cade the desert or the buy essay cheap economics, subarctic, they continued the hunter-gatherer life style, adjusting it to cade theme essay, the locale. Provisioning themselves from the land, women gathered plant foods and men hunted. When collecting plants, women often carried their infants in a leather sling, on their hip. Women gathering plants, and papers online moderation, men hunting was the trend, but the variability was broad. By Toni Bambara Essay? In the Arctic there were no plants to gather, and people lived on meat and blubber. In braving the blizzards and buy research cheap moderation and happiness, the freezing temperatures, Inuits proved the the lesson cade essay, obvious: Human adaptability has no limits.
The sharing of wives rather than practicing monogamy as nearly all hunter-gatherer bands did, was an best essay writing service reviews 700 Inuit adaptation to the Arctic. Men who belonged to the same hunting party, shared wives. The wives, all of whom were potential widows, were well served by this communal arrangement, for bambara theme essay, Arctic hunting is buy research online cheap, extremely risky. A widow ‘married' to a living group (rather than a dead husband) would not go hungry. Nor would her children.
In the dense forests, women (and sometimes children) drove animals into nets where men killed the ensnared animals; in harsh deserts, women brought back animals as well as plants. The occasional kangaroo or. cassowary, the large game men hunted, were often equaled in caloric value by the smaller game, the lizards, snakes, rodents, caught by women. Not all women returned with smaller game. Leaving their children home in the care of others, some women hunted as men did with bow and arrow. Even more remarkable are the the lesson by toni bambara theme essay, groups in which men collected plant food! Since time immemorial, people have dreamt of escaping competitiveness and of living harmoniously. Papers Online Moderation And Happiness? Many of these seekers are ignorant of prehistory; ignorant of the achievements of their ancestors.
They do not know that hunter-gatherers, their human ancestors, lived in an equitable society for the lesson by toni cade bambara theme, almost 200,000 years! In a society with little economic division or social hierarchy, and few permanent leaders. In some groups, women enjoyed greater sexual equality than at any other time in online the fiftieth gate history. How did hunter-gatherers escape human competitiveness? How did they manage to the lesson by toni cade bambara theme, live equitably for thousands of years? In their small groups, they knew one another personally. Food was scarce. Not to the point of essay topics starvation. But unreliable. Had hunter-gatherer groups been large enough to the lesson by toni cade theme essay, eliminate personal recognition, would their equitable society have survived? Probably not.
What if the group had remained small, but the food supply had become reliable, even abundant? This question has been ‘tested ‘ and given a clear answer. Hunter-gatherer groups that lived by the sea, for example, where food was plentiful, did NOT share food. These groups lost their equitable society, became hierarchic, and divided into rich and write, poor. They acquired permanent leaders with special prerogatives - - the inequities of modern society! There is reason to believe that all hierarchic groups, at some time in their history, had abundant food. Water provided the food in by toni cade bambara theme some cases: fish migrated into the streams near them; the effect essay topics, open sea offered large fish. Land in other cases: herds of bison ran in the nearby fields. By Toni Essay? Sometimes cold weather accompanied the abundance of buy research online food. Then, groups were able to smoke salmon, dry bison, and be supplied throughout the winter. The storage of food destroyed the little that remained of the traditional hunter-gatherer band.
Groups that had been nomadic, moving every few months in search of food or water holes, became stationary. Now they remained in the same place long enough to grow and harvest small gardens. And they no longer lived in flimsy shelters that could be put up in a matter of by toni bambara a few hours, but in permanent houses. In egalitarian bands all the children awoke to largely the same expectations. In hierarchic bands, children of the rich and poor awoke to distinctly different prospects: a day spent in papers online the light of a well-placed father, vs. a day spent in the lesson by toni the shadow of a lowly father. Hierarchical bands marked high and low status conspicuously, for instance, leaders did not have to hunt or fish for themselves, they were given food by others.. Some of the hierarchical groups added war, and write, fought viciously with their neighbors. Fights of theme essay this kind were relatively infrequent, not only among egalitarian groups, but among the remaining hierarchical bands as well. The warlike groups not only fought and took prisoners, they turned the prisoners into slaves.
If we look only at the egalitarian bands, that formed the majority, comprising perhaps over 90% of our prehistory, we are unprepared for best writing reviews 700, the inequities of our modern world. But if we look at the remaining 10%, with its social hierarchy, war and slavery, the modern world ceases to be a mystery. How does abundant food turn an the lesson by toni cade theme egalitarian group into a hierarchical one? People share food when it is scarce or its supply is unreliable, But they do not share when food is abundant. They keep not only food for themselves, but the goods they receive when bartering with extra food. This too contrasts with what is write my paper, done in a time of scarcity. When food is the lesson by toni bambara, scarce, a gifted hunter who is lucky enough to barter his occasional extra food for a cow or horse will share the milk with other group members and allow them to use the buy research papers cheap, horse. Sharing food suppresses the enormous individual differences in ability that divide people. People of the lesson by toni cade high ability, when sharing food with their neighbors, do not exploit their superior ability, to take advantage of their neighbors. Instead, they use their ability to help both themselves and their neighbors. Help Library Images? When food is abundant, however, people use their superior ability selfishly.
They use it to the lesson bambara essay, accumulate as much food as possible. Buy Research Online Cheap Moderation? A competition ensues among the able, won by the individual who is best able at translating his goods into power. In time, this individual will establish himself as the the lesson by toni cade theme, leader of the band. Under his leadership, the cultural values of the egalitarian band, modesty and equality, will weaken, and the band will begin to accept the quite different values of the hierarchic band, stridency and help, self-promotion. This change is not one that can be brought about in days, weeks or months. Probably it cannot be accomplished by just one power-driven leader, but by a succession of them. The Lesson Theme Essay? Overcoming the best writing reviews, culture of the egalitarian band may take several generations. Was the transition reversible? Since the change from by toni theme, scarce to abundant food was in all likelihood the key factor in converting an egalitarian group into best writing 700 a hierarchic one, would the opposite reverse the process?
Would the depletion of a once abundant food supply restore a formerly egalitarian group to its original condition? would the group resume food sharing? Data that bear on this question suggest that the the lesson by toni, answer is no. Hierarchic groups have been found to have a high density of people per unit food, and indeed some anthropologists have proposed this as the cause of hierarchic groups. A mistake, I suggest. It confuses the buy research online and happiness, long-term consequences of the lesson bambara essay a hierarchic group with the condition that caused the group to form in the first place. Hierarchic groups, at least in their early stages, have an virtues of leadership abundant supply of the lesson theme food. This abundance attracts people, leading in time to a high density of people. The abundant food supply may also increase the birth rate, contributing to the high density of people.
Stored food, one of the consequences of an abundant food supply, leads people to become sedentary. Buy Essay Online? People have a higher birth rate when sedentary. Probably the inter-birth interval declines, and so does the practice of infanticide common in nomadic groups. People multiply, but not the food supply. As a consequence, the density of people per unit food increases. This may be the theme essay, common fate of groups that begin with an exceptional food supply. As the food diminishes relative to the population, will the group revert to its egalitarian origins?
The data indicate that it will not. People at and cause essay, the top, who are least affected by any shortage of the lesson by toni cade bambara food, will not willingly give up their privileges. People at the bottom, who are most affected by a shortage of food, very seldom act forcibly to buy research papers online, increase their privileges. By Toni Essay? On the few occasion in more recent history when the cpm homework, underprivileged did react, their revolutions did not produce an egalitarian society. They simply changed the membership of the privileged group. Humans have a built-in inequality. Some are twice as smart as others, twice as sly, bold, cunning, etc. Differences of this kind express themselves - - whether food is scarce or plentiful - - except under one condition: Circumstances force people to share food. The Lesson Essay? Sharing blocks the expression of individual differences in ability, producing, as it did in the case of the cpm homework help library, hunter-gatherers, an the lesson cade bambara theme equitable society that lasted thousands of years. When food was scarce or its supply unreliable, men shared meat and women shared plant food.
The sharing of meat by men is generally regarded as a case of reciprocal altruism. An individual who has food gives it to those who do not, on the expectation that he will be given food if the best essay reviews, tables are turned. Though a skilled hunter will, in the long run, doubtless give far more than he receives, reciprocal altruism is an insurance policy. Cade Bambara? Were the hunter to run out of food, he would be protected against disaster. Reciprocal altruism, though probably the best-fitting model of the alternatives, is not a complete success. It will not explain sharing in large groups. Even in small groups, there is evidence in favor of other models, including a kinship effect (more given to kin than non-kin), and so called ‘tolerated theft', meat obtained by insistent nagging (reminiscent of the scrounging by which chimpanzees obtain meat from an animal holding the kill). Why do men hunt large game in papers cheap gate essay the first place? They could obtain more food, with less risk, by combining the essay, hunting of cpm homework library images small game with gathering plants. Cade Theme Essay? But bold, successful risk-taking may attract sexual partners, and gate, despite the belittling of the capture of the lesson by toni theme essay large game, de rigeur in egalitarian groups, killing a large animal did not prevent the topics, hunter from gaining prestige. Young unmarried men who are skilled hunters offered meat to women for sex.
And men were not always upset when their wives participated. They enjoyed the meat. In a literature largely written by men, one hears more about the meat men shared than of the plant food shared by women. The Lesson By Toni Essay? Nevertheless, women in some groups routinely collected more plants, berries, nuts, roots, etc. than needed and buy research papers online cheap, gave them to other women who too collected more than they needed. The Lesson Bambara? Giving of this kind is not well explained by reciprocal altruism, or any of the and cause topics, other evolutionary models designed to explain altruism. Essay? On the contrary, it suggests that giving may be an intrinsic disposition in people, in women, at cpm homework, least. Giving may be an intrinsic disposition of men, too, though, in by toni cade essay their case, because of the greater value of meat, the effect and cause essay topics, disposition to give may be suppressed. Many hunter-gatherer bands, while largely devoid of the lesson by toni cade essay both social and economic division, did not necessarily have harmonious relations. Not everyone got along. But this was not a difficult problem to solve. Those who did not get along could leave to join another band belonging to the same core group.
There were more serious imperfections. Men, in the same band, sometimes murdered one another over women. They did so despite (or perhaps because of) love affairs. Library? How common were affairs? Common enough to lead to rules prescribing how an the lesson by toni bambara affair was to get someone my paper of leadership, be conducted. Strictly forbidden was an affair with the brother or sister of one's spouse. When living as hunter-gatherers humans acquired their basic nature. Cade Bambara? Not only language, which too often is taken to cheap the fiftieth gate, explain all of human uniqueness, but a number of by toni other unique capacities as well.
Three are especially critical for understanding people. Best Essay 700? First, theory of mind (our ability to the lesson bambara, explain the actions of others by ‘reading' their minds and attributing mental states to them, such as think, want, hope, etc.). Second, pedagogy (our unique disposition to effect essay topics, teach one another). Third, reasoning of various kinds (inference, analogies, causal reasoning, etc.). By Toni Bambara Theme Essay? These capacities are often obscured by our preoccupation with language, but they are essential for human culture. Archeological evidence suggests that not only imitation but teaching may have evolved in the human lineage, and that as early as Homo erectus. Although the earliest tools of Homo erectus were quite variable, their ‘intermediate' tools were surprisingly uniform, suggesting imitation, one individual copying another.
Their later tools are not only uniform but complex, too complex perhaps to have been made by imitation alone. French archeologists devised a clever way to estimate the complexity of a tool: They made the tool themselves! Using the same kind of stones used by Homo erectus (the French lab is located exactly where H. Buy Research Online Gate Essay? erectus once lived), they found that the tool required a five-step sequence. It would have been difficult to reproduce a sequence of this kind by the lesson by toni cade, imitation alone, some amount of correction or teaching was probably required, though the teaching need not have used language. The teacher could provide examples, and then nod approval/disapproval as the students attempted to duplicate them. But language could have been used, since endocasts suggest that the brain of Homo erectus contained Broca's area, a fundamental language area. Flexibility, the buy research online cheap the fiftieth gate essay, capacity to respond adaptively to unforseen conditions, is the lesson by toni bambara, distinctive of human intelligence. Papers Cheap Moderation And Happiness? While human intelligence initially evolved to solve the problems of the world of the hunter-gatherer, it continues to the lesson cade theme, serve humans in solving the very different problems of the modern world. Had human intelligence not been flexible, people would never have survived this enormous transition. Some evolutionary psychologists claim that since evolution solves specific, not general, problems, there is no general purpose knowledge.' This claim may be true of crickets or ducks, but not of humans.
When applied to humans the claim reveals a serious misunderstanding of human intelligence. When a human cuts an apple with a knife, marks a paper with a pencil, cooks meat over a fire, he recognizes these actions as examples of causal transformation. And Cause Topics? Shown a completely different transformation, say, of someone cleaning a table with a wet sponge, he would recognize this too as an example of causal action. Humans recognize physically different examples of cause because the human representation of all concepts - - not only that of causal action - - is abstract or general. Evolution may indeed solve specific problems, but the human representation of these ‘solutions' is nonetheless abstract and general. Perhaps the earliest indication of human flexibility lay in the lesson cade bambara the dawn of the species when humans invented technologies - - fire, cooking, clothing, shelters - - that sealed their future. Equipped with these technologies they were able to drift out of Africa, spread across Asia into Europe, and, as hunter-gatherers, settled in virtually every corner of the world. By contrast, chimpanzees have remained in get someone the same corner of Africa for the last 5 million years, lacking the by toni cade theme, cognition to produce the technologies on which migration depends. The loss of game, brought about by changes in climate, competition from other species, etc., is a common problem faced by many species.
Not all species survive. Those that do are rescued by evolution. Over the course of generations, survivors adapt to a new diet. But humans, when their supply of game collapsed, were not rescued by buy research papers online and happiness, evolution, nor did they slowly adapt to a new diet over the course of generations. Humans changed their technology. Rather than foraging for by toni cade bambara theme essay, plants and animals, they planted the former and domesticated the my paper virtues, latter.
A cognitive change. A change based on intelligence, not evolution. Humans were able to make this change because of their abstract understanding of the lesson cade essay causality. They were able to recognize that seeds planted in topics the earth would grow into plants. Is The Hunter-Gatherer Brain Different From The Modern Brain? Though whether humans have continued to evolve was once a controversial issue, today it is no longer in doubt.
Genetic modifications have definitely occurred since humans turned to agriculture in the past 10,000 years. The best documented modifications are in the digestive system, and in the immune system. The rise of dairy farming between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago, caused a genetic modification that produced lactose tolerance in some adults. The change is confined to humans who populated areas in which dairy farming flourished; in parts of Europe mainly. Disease too has caused genetic changes. People with genotypes that confer resistance to a disease will have more offspring; the resulting natural selection will lead to an increase in the lesson bambara theme the frequency of those who have the resistance-conferring genes.
Though malaria is a scourge of cpm homework help library mankind, it did not become one until after the invention of farming. The clearing of forests left pools of standing water in which mosquitoes could breed. Several genes have alleles that produce resistance to the malaria. About 6,000 years ago, one appeared in Africa; the other which appeared in southern Europe, the Middle East, and India, is cade essay, estimated to be about 3,300 years old. The ability to identify a genetic modification, to estimate its date of occurrence, to associate it with a physiological change, and to relate the modification to buy essay online, a known environmental or cultural event, provides clear evidence that humans have evolved in the past 10,000 years.
But which if any of these changes have an effect on human brain and intelligence? Genetic changes in lactose tolerance and the lesson bambara, disease resistance have no such effect. Are we to believe that we still have our stone age brain, that the essay reviews, modern human brain is the brain of the hunter-gatherer? There are two challenges to this view: First, the genetic change which is responsible for the DRD4 7R allele, and second, the the lesson bambara theme, gene ASPM. DRD4 7R is an allele associated with both the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the personality trait of papers cheap novelty seeking. ASPM has for millions of the lesson cade bambara years been a specific regulator of brain size in the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens. There is papers and happiness, a suggestion that the DRD4 7R allele originated as a rare mutational event. Rare in that this mutation, unlike most, had a beneficial effect and thus increased in frequency in human populations by positive selection.
Is the claimed ‘novelty seeking' beneficial? Even if we were to grant this claim, a predilection for the lesson by toni bambara theme, novelty may have little effect on intelligence. If a novelty-seeker were to tackle problems a conservative person would shun, would this change the abstractness of online cheap economics stored information? the computational skills involved in reasoning? our social competence (the accuracy of the the lesson cade bambara theme essay, mental states we attribute to the other one)? Probably not. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene ASPM has revealed ‘. its strong positive selection in the primate lineage leading to humans, especially in the last 6 million years of online economics hominid evolution..' A contemporary genetic analysis now shows that ‘. one genetic variant of ASPM in humans arose only about 5800 years ago and ‘. has since swept to high frequency under strong positive selection,' a suggestion that the human brain is still undergoing rapid adaptive evolution. The continued enlargement of the human brain would almost certainly lead to by toni cade, a change in human intelligence, but presently there is no evidence for either an cpm homework help images enlargement of the brain, or a change in human intelligence. By Toni Bambara? Paradoxically, there is a suggestion of papers online and happiness the opposite change, a reduction in the size of the human brain! This suggestion comes from the fact that domestication of animals has led to a reduction in the lesson theme essay the size of the brain, and some anthropologists argue that humans, in going from foraging to agriculture, themselves underwent domestication.
But this is a dubious claim. A farmer enjoyed none of the benefits of a domesticated animal. He was not fed, sheltered, and protected from buy essay online cheap, predators. In the transition from forager to farmer, humans changed the kind of challenges they faced, not the number or severity of the challenges. All the distinctive facets of by toni theme human intelligence are seen in the activities of humans when they lived as hunter-gatherers.
They talked. Women gathered in the morning to tell one another stories about yesterday's happenings; in some groups women punctuated their stories with visual symbols, iconic figures they drew in the sand. Essay Service Reviews? Men, sitting by camp fires in the evening, argued over the lesson by toni cade bambara theme, the special traits of different animals. They honored first-hand knowledge over mere opinion. And with the best essay writing 700, same intensity we do today. Hunter-gatherers taught one another.
Parents taught their children the technologies on which their lives depended: How to butcher large animals, to turn animal hide into cloth. How to break ostrich shells into tiny pieces, then string them on leather thongs to make jewelry. How to make weapons, spears, arrows; and the poison for arrows from snake and spider venom, etc. Parents were the teachers because there were no schools or professional teachers. Schools did not emerge until written language, and written language did not emerge until agriculture. Writing dramatically transformed human knowledge.
Because written documents could be scrutinized, as speech could not, they were repeatedly revised. The Lesson Bambara Theme Essay? Their revision lead to the elimination of redundancy, the compacting of arguments, and effect and cause essay topics, the discovery of higher order generalizations. The Lesson Cade Theme Essay? Under the buy essay economics, impact of writing, informal knowledge, such as the hunter-gatherer's folk-knowledge of plants and animals, was systematized and turned into science. Often-told tales and stories became literature, and informal calculations, became logic and mathematics. The specialized knowledge produced by writing culminated in schools and teachers, depreciating the parent's folk-knowledge, ultimately putting them out of work as teachers. In conversing with one another, in reading one another's minds, in copying one another's actions, in teaching one another, humans profit from one another to an uncanny degree.
The complex social web that knits people together, a web still waiting to be fully unraveled, explains much of the advantage humans have over other species.