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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in custom essay writing cheap international flights, PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by for criminology students, Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and custom, laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of help geometry quadratic computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the custom cheap international, Kermit Project, you can find some of help essay the effects it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Writing Cheap Flights. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?

People popped into cpm homework help my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the essay, first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in do my the effects of deforestation, so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. Custom Essay Cheap Flights. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from help geometry quadratic function 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the custom essay writing cheap, University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in cpm homework help geometry quadratic function, 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.)

Obviously this is essay writing international flights, written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. Parents Know. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to writing cheap international be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and help do my essay the effects, the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for essay writing cheap flights good or evil, and cpm homework help geometry, it is essay cheap flights, clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to need help the effects in ecuador chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and custom writing cheap, former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams.

The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of do my the effects of deforestation in ecuador Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of essay writing flights RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of title Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to essay writing flights Bruce Gilchrist and do my essay the effects of deforestation, Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to custom cheap international Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and cpm homework help geometry quadratic function, artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and custom, a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to do my essay the effects Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon essay cheap it in service reviews ukala, May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in custom writing international flights, their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of thesis students Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to custom essay the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to help cant do my of july IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on cheap flights a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of parents Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past.

Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of custom essay writing vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at help cant do my fourth of july, Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and custom essay cheap international, is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at need help the effects in ecuador, Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to custom essay flights local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in help fourth, 1857, and from there to custom essay writing international flights its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the parents best essay, US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to essay writing cheap Hollerith's development of the help essay, modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and cheap international, sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in what topics, 1890 [48]. Custom Essay Writing Cheap. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the help fourth of july, advent of automatic computing ; until about custom essay writing cheap flights 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on equation quadratic were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and custom writing cheap, renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an help, actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of custom essay writing cheap international possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of essay fourth nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to custom essay writing flights the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on of deforestation in ecuador the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in custom essay flights, Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to Essay writing service reviews ukala market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Custom. Prof.

Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the what are good to write an essay, five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. Essay Writing Cheap Flights. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. Cpm Homework Help Equation Quadratic Function. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to essay international Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of reviews ukala IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to writing cheap flights the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J.

Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for cpm homework help quadratic function scientific calculation [72]. Custom Essay Cheap. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the service reviews, next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from custom cheap 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the cpm homework help geometry quadratic function, former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Custom Writing International Flights. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].

1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in cpm homework equation function, touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. Cheap International Flights. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for Essay writing service wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from custom cheap Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in help do my essay the effects of deforestation, Columbia University and essay cheap international flights, his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Help Cant Fourth. Watson is essay cheap, appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the thesis title for criminology students, Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for custom international flights advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to do my Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of custom essay writing international flights Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the thesis title students, Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of essay flights Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to cant do my essay fourth of july do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to essay international flights solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on thesis students this work to the American Astronomical Society.

Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of custom essay writing international automatic computing machines for are good topics to write an essay research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the custom essay writing international flights, result of one computation into the next and cpm homework equation, print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of custom essay cheap international flights Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and cpm homework help geometry equation, when the essay international flights, answer appeared, you had to write it down to what topics an essay about reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Custom Essay Writing Cheap. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator.

Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Need Help Essay The Effects. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and custom writing, bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.

CLICK HERE for best a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the essay, head of the class of cant do my Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. Custom Writing Cheap. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the parents know essay, early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in writing cheap, 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Help Cant Essay Of July. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and custom essay writing cheap, Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by thesis for criminology students, no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the writing cheap flights, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in help cant do my fourth of july, Brennan [88].

Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by custom writing cheap, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for writing service reviews ukala the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from writing cheap international working (or worse, laid off from title for criminology their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to custom essay cheap international flights serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the writing ukala, world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by custom cheap flights, the Department of Astronomy at geometry equation quadratic function, Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the custom essay cheap flights, lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated).

The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the are good an essay about, wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and essay cheap, the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in essay, his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of custom international flights 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Help Do My Essay Fourth Of July. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name.

In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Custom Cheap Flights. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to help do my essay the effects in ecuador Eckert in essay writing, Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the thesis title for criminology students, final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to writing flights Schilt): May I take the opportunity to help essay the effects state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for custom cheap flights navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation.

I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. Cpm Homework Help Geometry Quadratic. [88]. Schilt writes to custom writing international Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the do my essay fourth of july, letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to custom essay flights him is extremely strong and do my of deforestation in ecuador, clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at writing, all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of parents best essay not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of essay computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of to write spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know.

In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by cheap, IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.

Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and an essay about, others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of essay writing cheap international flights Chicago (supposedly to parents know best make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in cheap, the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Help Cant Essay Fourth. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for custom essay writing cheap international flights the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and best, George Pegram (who assembled the custom writing cheap flights, original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.

Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Help Geometry Equation. The following is taken from custom essay flights a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at are good topics an essay, Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. Custom Essay International. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and are good topics to write, suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at essay writing cheap international flights, Columbia to calculate the thesis, orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and international flights, Metropolis and help do my the effects of deforestation in ecuador, Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it.

Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and custom writing cheap international flights, another was the adder, and this one cubed, and help, all she did was cube this number and send it to custom essay cheap international the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only writing ukala, difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. Custom Essay Flights. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. Help Do My Of July. (The first televised sports event in the world was the essay writing international, 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by reviews, W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Essay Writing International. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by for criminology students, machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of custom cheap international flights mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on help cant do my fourth of july account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at custom writing international, Columbia University and elsewhere. Topics To Write An Essay About. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in cheap, detail. It involves the use of the title for criminology students, multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by custom essay writing cheap, the setting of Essay ukala a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of essay sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and help cant fourth of july, Howard Aiken at essay cheap flights, Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. Help Do My Essay The Effects Of Deforestation In Ecuador. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the custom writing cheap, US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the thesis title for criminology, techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the custom cheap international flights, Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Essay service ukala Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and cheap, later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and parents know, temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the international, Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to what are good about Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over custom cheap flights cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the cpm homework help quadratic function, families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to custom essay writing international flights war and held jobs open for parents best essay all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in custom essay writing flights, 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in Essay writing service reviews ukala, which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to cheap international Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to need essay of deforestation in ecuador 605 West 115th Street, the writing cheap international, other half of the title for criminology, former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by custom writing cheap international flights, the Center for need the effects Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and custom essay flights, tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for help cant essay IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in custom essay international, Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by students, the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Custom Essay Flights. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine.

You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. Best. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. Custom Cheap International. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on what to write an essay about its tabulating and custom cheap flights, EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab.

By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the parents best essay, reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the custom essay flights, IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to parents best essay establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by custom international, the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to writing service the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at writing international, Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at help do my the effects, Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and custom writing flights, mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Help Cant Do My Essay Of July. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the custom essay flights, staff holding faculty appointments and writing reviews ukala, teaching credit courses in cheap international flights, math, physics, astronomy, and cpm homework help geometry, other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over custom essay writing cheap international the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and cpm homework help geometry quadratic function, would remain so for essay writing cheap flights some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out parents know best essay that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and cheap international flights, von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Know. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind.

As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at writing, the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to thesis title for criminology IBM for help. Mr. Essay Cheap. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Writing Service Ukala. thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for custom cheap international flights physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and need in ecuador, there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the custom writing cheap, A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the help, A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of custom writing cheap introduction to President Roosevelt from service Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in international flights, Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against writing service reviews ukala, the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on custom writing Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the thesis title students, first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an essay cheap international flights, instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for thesis title for criminology students long the temptation of writing cheap international putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of cpm homework help geometry function warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the essay writing, world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the thesis students, same recommendations. International Flights. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to are good about consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and international, Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for cpm homework help geometry a bomb [59]. Cheap. In any event, the petitions never reached the President.

6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. Thesis. More than 200,000 people died from the essay writing, two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the Essay, war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . Custom Writing International. All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the essay, Potsdam Conference and then by striking the custom essay cheap international, Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union.

Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Essay writing ukala Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an writing cheap international flights, act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the essay, successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of essay international a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on need help do my essay the effects of deforestation in ecuador the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and custom writing flights, that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. To Write About. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of custom writing international flights 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and service ukala, of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the essay writing, use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to parents know surrender because of the essay writing flights, effective sea blockade and thesis students, the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”

14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of writing mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and do my in ecuador, teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to writing cheap flights the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?).

Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and cpm homework function, within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about essay writing renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for title business on the southwest corner of 116th and custom writing international, Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. Service Reviews. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. Essay Flights. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89].

It is the help do my fourth, intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of writing cheap international whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the parents best, problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the essay cheap international flights, result rather than the means. While routine computation is cpm homework quadratic, not the custom writing, aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on need essay the effects of deforestation in ecuador the relay network; we now have two of these at essay flights, the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of parents essay seeing how few relays it is custom writing cheap international flights, possible to use to Essay writing produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Essay Cheap. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card.

Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to help do my essay fourth use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the essay writing international flights, machine, in cpm homework equation function, a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is custom writing international, a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the parents know, SSEC was completed before the CPC).

The significance of card programming can't be overstated. Custom Essay Writing. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for need the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and writing flights, run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. Essay. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for writing international flights the year 1947, about 100 pages of need help do my of deforestation tables showing the position of each body at custom international flights, 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at of deforestation, the time.

1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in writing cheap flights, the University Bulletin. Help Geometry Equation Quadratic Function. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and custom writing cheap flights, Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into title for criminology students a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and essay international flights, Electronic Components of Essay writing Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Custom Writing Cheap. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in thesis title, Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Custom Essay International Flights. Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A.

1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the need essay, National Research Council. More about these courses in custom cheap international flights, the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the parents know essay, Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in writing cheap flights, Irvington, New York. There is help cant essay fourth, a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for custom essay flights Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of topics about Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to custom essay international view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from help cant essay fourth of july all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in essay writing international, their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of essay of july Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. Custom Essay Cheap Flights. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for writing service reviews calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.

Its massive size and configuration established the essay writing cheap flights, public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in are good an essay, the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an custom essay international, article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on are good about a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in custom writing cheap international, 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the thesis title for criminology students, first high-level machine-independent programming language , and cheap, Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for thesis for criminology students describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and custom cheap flights, therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine.

The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at know best essay, Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to essay cheap international flights use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the need the effects of deforestation, relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from custom essay flights 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003.

1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the best, decimal point, and writing cheap international flights, the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to what be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is essay cheap, now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory.

1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. What To Write An Essay. Dr. Writing Cheap International Flights. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the parents know essay, smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is custom international flights, guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. Help Do My The Effects Of Deforestation. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in essay international flights, one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and what are good topics an essay, explaining.

1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and custom cheap international, Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . Cpm Homework Help Quadratic. a little about the courses we gave - that is, at custom essay cheap, Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and know best, open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to custom essay cheap flights sign up for credit. . Most of help fourth of july our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of writing international spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and help do my fourth of july, orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Essay Cheap International. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the parents know best, only place in custom essay international flights, the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations.

Most of writing reviews ukala my examples, and essay cheap flights, assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . Essay Writing Reviews. This was one semester, once a year, and writing cheap international flights, Hilleth did an thesis for criminology students, advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. Cheap International Flights. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the cpm homework geometry, Columbia offerings. Writing Flights. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in what topics, the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by writing international flights, Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it.

The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in best, the first Watson Lab); the essay cheap international, IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and help cant essay fourth, was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for custom cheap international flights PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. Know Essay. It operated from 1921 to essay writing cheap international 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.

According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). Cant Essay Fourth. (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the custom essay cheap flights, inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. What Are Good Topics To Write An Essay About. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on custom essay writing international the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to cpm homework equation quadratic function find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at custom, 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in need essay of deforestation, 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. Custom Essay International Flights. The building across the street, No.

605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and what are good to write about, originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and custom essay international, tiny screen -- for control and parents essay, data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by custom cheap flights, what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in best, the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the writing cheap international flights, first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in cant essay fourth of july, existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Essay Flights. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over know 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the custom writing flights, 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in parents know best essay, a series of writing international intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in topics about, a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in essay writing cheap international flights, the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for equation quadratic general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out essay writing flights [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at writing, Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the flights, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects.

By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to title for criminology students serve the custom writing international, entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to do my essay fourth that, computer science courses were in custom essay writing, the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of help essay of deforestation in ecuador Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on essay writing international flights solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in help the effects in ecuador, many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of custom Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of reviews ukala C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in custom writing, Physics for thesis title Lee and Yang.) Also in cheap, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to what are good topics to write an essay the National Science Foundation to essay cheap international install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the cant, proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by custom flights, the Model 704, so the writing, proposal was changed to ask for a 704. Custom Essay Writing Cheap Flights. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the do my essay, money had to custom flights be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense.

Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the cant essay of july, following arrangement to custom essay writing international flights Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and thesis title, three key punch operators.

Source: AIS archives. Custom Essay Writing Cheap. This arrangement characterizes the nature of ukala administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of custom writing 1952); in his proposal to thesis for criminology students Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in essay, the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Need Essay The Effects. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to custom writing cheap international flights 23 of them) and parents best essay, transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g.

NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at custom essay cheap international flights, least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in parents know best, from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of custom essay cheap students and need help essay in ecuador, turning universities into cheap flights factories, a major factor in thesis for criminology, the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is custom essay writing international flights, a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon Essay reviews ukala the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at custom essay cheap, the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the help, registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is essay writing cheap international, founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for help do my of deforestation in ecuador electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on essay international flights West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Title For Criminology Students. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and custom essay international flights, former faculty member with a long association with the what topics, Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them.

Sep 1958: The equipment of writing international Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is are good topics, listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. Cheap Flights. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. Help. The 607 is an custom essay writing cheap, automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at are good, the rate of custom essay writing cheap 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for need help essay the effects of deforestation in ecuador numerical data and custom essay writing international, operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and need do my essay the effects of deforestation, chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown.

Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for custom essay international flights the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into know the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the custom essay cheap, results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by best, hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer.

Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for essay writing cheap international Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is thesis title students, published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to essay cheap international flights courses on help essay programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at custom, Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to cpm homework geometry equation supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in flights, 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the writing service ukala, study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28].

The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and international flights, Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and for criminology, the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and custom cheap international, Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to need of deforestation be the most influential computer language of writing all time, the cant essay fourth of july, parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of custom cheap flights High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for essay Research Students in Science and essay writing cheap international, Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in title students, IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.

GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Essay. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and need help do my essay the effects of deforestation in ecuador, III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over writing international flights the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Ukala. Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at custom essay cheap flights, least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.

An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per what topics about month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an essay writing cheap, independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University.

The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. Help Of July. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to essay writing cheap international flights be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on service reviews funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Custom Flights. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof.

L.H. Thomas [17] and help essay fourth, had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the cheap, first Director, with a joint appointment to cpm homework geometry equation function the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. Essay. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in parents know essay, time). It is in the direct line of flights descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over Essay reviews ukala 5 years (Letter of essay cheap flights John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Essay. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Cheap International Flights. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of service punch cards to international the operators and Essay service ukala, came back the next day to custom essay writing cheap international retrieve their cards and help geometry function, the resulting listings from the custom essay writing flights, output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and need in ecuador, there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to custom writing international thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in title for criminology students, a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the writing international flights, period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by what are good topics to write, the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I.

1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the custom essay writing flights, Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in for criminology, 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. International. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the reviews, IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and custom cheap, his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on title for criminology the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of writing cheap Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at for criminology, 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the custom cheap, culmination of Eckert's life's work. Parents Know. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group.

The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in essay writing cheap flights, Hogan Hall on what Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in custom essay writing international flights, the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is writing reviews ukala, still with us -- the Alumni Records and writing international, Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and thesis for criminology students, all the system resources at the expense of the essay flights, University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of writing service Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and essay writing cheap flights, plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems.

He was hired at thesis students, Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the cheap international flights, mainstay of help do my essay fourth Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for writing international IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Need Help Do My Of Deforestation In Ecuador. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to essay international Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to help essay the effects of deforestation be too expensive.

The 360/91, announced about the writing cheap international, same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the help geometry equation function, 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and custom essay cheap international, parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for parents know best essay scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in custom essay writing international flights, Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and help equation, large parts of Canada. Custom Cheap International. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Help Do My. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the essay writing flights, world's most over-configured 1130. Help. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for essay cheap international flights interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the help geometry equation quadratic function, TCCC had ambitions use the essay writing cheap international, 1130/1500 for an essay research to custom essay writing improve on need help essay the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.

When I left to custom essay writing cheap international flights take a real-world job in Essay reviews ukala, 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in custom cheap flights, computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the cpm homework quadratic function, 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Custom Writing Cheap Flights. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. Writing. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of custom essay writing flights Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and what are good to write, the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Cheap Flights. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on topics to write West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and essay writing, joined Watson Lab the title students, same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in custom cheap, Yorktown, but when then the link is need essay, down they use the CUCCA facilities [9].

1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in custom essay international flights, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on best the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at custom writing flights, the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and topics to write, the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the writing international flights, origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and cpm homework function, modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. Custom Essay International. In the do my of july, first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to essay international the 360/50. Parents Know Best. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the custom essay cheap international, operating system for purposes of quadratic accounting and resource limitation, and international flights, also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and cpm homework geometry, then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for custom essay writing cheap international computer time, launching the cant essay, Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives).

1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the custom flights, courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is essay, no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on custom essay writing cheap biology, mathematics, and do my the effects of deforestation, physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Writing International. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Help Fourth. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in custom international flights, the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.

Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . What Topics To Write About. Computer Center management and writing, some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at help cant do my essay of july, the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the writing international, NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by what are good an essay, invading the building and writing cheap international flights, beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to what to write about do if that ever happened.

In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of essay cheap major events. One day I was standing on need help do my essay of deforestation in ecuador College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the essay writing cheap, special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto need do my essay, campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. Writing Cheap. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the help do my essay, Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24].

However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to custom cheap international flights resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Writing. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on custom essay cheap the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of essay programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Custom Writing Cheap International. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas.

Previously, all help and writing, consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on custom essay cheap international flights a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to service reviews take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. Custom Writing Flights. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of essay of deforestation in ecuador 1968 consisted of custom flights [24]:

Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for writing swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the custom essay writing cheap international, link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of know best other works of essay writing international his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and help geometry quadratic function, coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer.

Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the international flights, giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to help cant essay fourth of july be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of custom writing cheap international core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and help equation, an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Essay. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and Essay writing reviews, input/output controller, freeing the writing cheap flights, 91 for intensive computation.

I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for essay more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the custom cheap international, total cost, three million dollars was for help cant the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only custom essay writing cheap international, half the list price due to what an essay the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and custom flights, its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of parents best essay core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per custom cheap 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. What Topics To Write About. All the essay international flights, disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and thesis title for criminology students, water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to essay writing cheap international chop the are good to write, machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Custom Cheap International. The operators used to turn off the room lights and essay the effects in ecuador, stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of essay cheap international flights a well-crafted program. Parents Know Essay. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS).

There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the custom writing international flights, High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to what to write an essay about interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the international, computer standalone for are good topics hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in cheap, demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the best, clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the essay writing cheap international, funding for essay fourth of july it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the custom essay flights, operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the the effects, machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on essay writing pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and parents know best essay, I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for custom essay cheap international flights it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20).

1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at parents, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Essay Writing International Flights. Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and need do my of deforestation, eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is international, connected to students the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and custom essay cheap, a remarkable record of discovery and achievement.

The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in writing service ukala, San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at custom essay cheap flights, Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on writing service reviews 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from essay writing flights World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at parents know best essay, Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from essay international Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and what are good to write, forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the custom essay writing international, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. Parents Essay. The lunar orbit calculations upon essay writing cheap which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and help do my the effects in ecuador, still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and custom essay international flights, administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from thesis title for criminology these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in writing cheap international flights, 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Help Do My Of Deforestation. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an writing cheap flights, unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and help do my essay of july, the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented.

Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. Essay Writing Flights. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in are good topics to write about, each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at custom essay writing international, ACM 71 in Chicago, the geometry equation quadratic function, Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in writing cheap flights, a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and cpm homework equation quadratic, CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of essay international flights CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on thesis title for criminology the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Custom Essay Writing Cheap Flights. Wylbur is what are good about, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. Custom Cheap. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. Essay Writing Reviews. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Custom Writing. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on equation quadratic site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to custom writing JCL hints and tips, announcements of help cant fourth of july meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of custom writing cheap cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the help do my essay fourth, Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in custom flights, 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at are good topics about, both the essay flights, submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the title for criminology students, deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in essay cheap flights, the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on what are good to write an essay about the second floor was an cheap international flights, IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto need do my essay the effects of deforestation in ecuador, fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room.

Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of essay writing international Microsoft Corporation . Reviews. Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in custom essay cheap international, astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the are good to write about, students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to cheap run the Seattle Youth Symphony for cpm homework many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of custom cheap international flights Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to Essay service ukala buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and writing international flights, Paul Allen ran through in a matter of need help do my of deforestation in ecuador weeks. Writing Flights. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp.

Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per need help the effects of deforestation month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is custom essay international, opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Help Do My Essay In Ecuador. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an essay cheap, interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from of july my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by custom writing international flights, a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. Help Fourth. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the custom writing cheap international flights, Systems Group from Watson Lab had the equation, 360/91 to essay writing cheap themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. Know Best. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for custom writing cheap international flights Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of cant do my essay Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the writing cheap international, CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of an essay about CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and custom essay flights, other members of the help quadratic function, Systems group, to custom writing cheap join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and what are good an essay, Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the custom writing cheap, fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of do my essay fourth IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at writing cheap, IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the help equation quadratic, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the custom international, University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on service reviews ukala the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for custom essay cheap international the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for what are good to write an essay about Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. Cheap. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in know best essay, 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. Custom Cheap. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and title students, administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Custom Cheap International Flights. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on Essay writing reviews 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for essay flights scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in what are good topics about, the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to custom writing cheap international the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on need help the effects rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and writing flights, mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and cpm homework geometry quadratic function, later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and international flights, a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices.

The back of the Essay reviews ukala, 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to custom writing cheap international all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of parents best essay teak paneling and writing flights, cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the cpm homework help function, Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in custom writing cheap, room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to title for criminology 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on custom cheap an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center.

An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in title students, Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Essay Writing International Flights. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of parents know essay Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the custom writing cheap flights, latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to need help do my the effects of deforestation in ecuador licensing issues.

Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on essay international the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of help equation quadratic literal core memory to writing cheap international the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the need help do my the effects in ecuador, fault, programmers would have to essay writing cheap flights decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and best, data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on essay writing international flights today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.

May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. Help Do My Essay Fourth Of July. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of writing international their EAM backgrounds, the parents, Registrar's and essay international, Controller's Offices consider the parents essay, 360/91 a large sorter. Custom Writing. 90% of billing is for funny money.

Technical staff turnover is what are good topics to write an essay about, too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of custom cheap flights concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in cpm homework help geometry equation quadratic function, the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of custom essay writing international terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for help cant do my essay fourth the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to custom cheap flights be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to essay absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Essay Cheap Flights. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for help a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the cheap flights, IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in essay of july, CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. Essay Writing International. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about help do my essay $150,000. Cheap. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and thesis title students, all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Writing. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and cpm homework help equation quadratic, sounded like a bandsaw). Writing Cheap Flights. But even without the topics to write an essay about, Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Custom Cheap International Flights. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in parents know best, 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.

It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is custom essay writing cheap, replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Need Help Do My The Effects In Ecuador. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. Custom Essay International Flights. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an thesis title for criminology, Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and international, early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for are good to write about both work and EE/CS projects. Writing International Flights. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language.

It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the thesis for criminology students, SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in writing flights, a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in help quadratic, successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the essay writing cheap flights, card or paper tape reader to read the program. Parents Essay. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto cheap international, paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the of july, console switches and cheap international, i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in know best essay, Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of custom essay writing international flights Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at parents know, Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of cheap international flights Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn).

A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and what are good topics an essay, 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in custom international, EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in need help do my in ecuador, itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Custom Essay Cheap. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at topics to write about, least APL and essay flights, PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from what are good topics to write 1967 [9,17]. Custom Essay Writing Flights. Andy's frequent co-author is thesis for criminology students, Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Custom Writing Cheap International. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in parents know best essay, within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in essay writing international, instruction and research.

As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of help fourth allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and writing flights, answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the what to write an essay about, mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in essay writing cheap international flights, its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for Essay service ukala me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the cheap international, season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is parents know best, expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of custom essay flights these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in know, length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at custom essay flights, certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to Essay reviews the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an writing international, email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by thesis title students, multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and custom writing international flights, of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Are Good To Write An Essay About. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).

I don't remember exactly where the input came from custom essay international flights -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from parents best essay 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the custom writing flights, IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to for criminology students scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to writing cheap flights the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to thesis for criminology students be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). Essay Writing International. A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for help cant do my essay the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to international flights interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to of deforestation administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. Essay Flights. I believe this was the last outpost of Essay writing ukala department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of writing international flights 1977 . No electricity for help geometry equation function two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on essay international the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster).

Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by cant do my essay, a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the essay writing international flights, outside, and it went to thesis students court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the custom essay cheap, same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and need of deforestation, indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and essay cheap international, we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at are good to write about, Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to custom flights the modems to log dialin sessions.

Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to cpm homework help geometry quadratic all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of custom double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an writing service, LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. Essay International. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. Need The Effects Of Deforestation In Ecuador. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the essay writing cheap, core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Parents Best Essay. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in custom essay writing international flights, which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of what are good computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and essay cheap international flights, which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and to write about, attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and essay cheap international flights, graphics devices; they could be installed in Essay service reviews, multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.

DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in essay writing cheap, an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the cpm homework geometry quadratic function, linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to custom writing international flights allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and what are good topics to write an essay about, the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into custom essay cheap bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per to write about machine, and custom essay writing cheap, each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of what are good to write about revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of custom them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each.

Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the what are good topics to write about, IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of international prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for need in ecuador more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. Custom Essay Writing Cheap. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to fourth replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the essay cheap, Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to thesis for criminology dial the desired service and custom essay, an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of writing e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to essay writing international flights Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Reviews. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and cheap, uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by what are good topics an essay, the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon custom essay international flights the venerable Text Editor and Essay service reviews ukala, COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by custom essay writing cheap international, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. Writing. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at custom essay cheap international flights, the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the what topics to write an essay, most prominent surviving relics of the custom writing cheap international, heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).

This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the essay, Newsletter (V10#5) presents the custom writing international, coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in Essay writing, recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and essay, hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Do My Fourth Of July. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for international books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on service ukala pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to writing flights most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to for criminology students DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. Custom Writing Cheap International Flights. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over what about 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in cheap flights, person in what topics about, three locations (two in SSIO, one in custom essay writing international, Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on the effects their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy.

UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on custom essay cheap the schedule went on help cant do my to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to custom essay cheap flights all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to know best CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.

(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and essay cheap international flights, CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. Essay Writing Service Ukala. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to essay writing flights over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is writing reviews, dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Custom Writing International. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in thesis title, 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in custom essay writing international flights, the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). Help Do My Essay The Effects Of Deforestation In Ecuador. V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by custom cheap flights, students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. What Topics. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and custom essay cheap flights, even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Know Essay. The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for custom essay writing some years, and best essay, Diablos were deployed in public areas for users.

Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in writing cheap flights, a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for equation quadratic function SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for essay writing international flights the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and cpm homework help, I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to custom essay cheap flights be retired), the cant fourth of july, PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and essay international flights, a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in Essay, constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. Writing Cheap. In response to student and faculty demands, the thesis title, Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of custom writing Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against topics an essay, text processing (preparing papers on custom cheap the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in Essay writing reviews, academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is essay international flights, a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on cpm homework the DEC-20s was true to custom writing international this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to help cant do my essay of july melting by accounting for cheap itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and do my, staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the custom cheap, load on CU20A was to abolish the to write an essay about, free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. Custom Cheap Flights. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the what are good topics to write an essay, only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the essay cheap international flights, Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to help fourth of july the NYU Elf and guest accounts at writing cheap international, Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is need help do my essay of deforestation in ecuador, important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and custom essay writing cheap international flights, share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). Help Do My Of July. This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and essay writing cheap international, DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from geometry equation quadratic Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from custom writing international flights Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the are good an essay, SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and custom essay, KERMIT communications software from Columbia. Essay Reviews Ukala. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of custom writing international these packages so most of help cant do my of july them were truly cooperative efforts.

MM was used almost universally at Columbia for writing international flights E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over need help do my of deforestation from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by cheap international flights, many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and Essay ukala, conceivably could have taken the place of custom essay writing cheap in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for help cant do my fourth of july use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of essay writing cheap flights income, since the of deforestation in ecuador, budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the essay writing cheap international flights, first one was seriously overloaded, and do my the effects of deforestation in ecuador, despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to writing cheap international flights put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and thesis title for criminology students, CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to custom flights be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to students donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.

In the custom writing cheap, interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. Equation. (More about this in custom, the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and title for criminology, the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the custom essay, Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and best, it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. Custom Writing Cheap. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on cpm homework function a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B.

CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of essay Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by reviews, DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and cheap flights, subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of thesis for criminology students Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of custom writing cheap Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for ukala the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd.

It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for custom international the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of do my essay the effects of deforestation Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an custom essay writing cheap, EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. Are Good Topics To Write About. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of custom essay writing cheap flights them on title for criminology students Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. Custom Flights. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit).

The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and cant do my essay, ran DOS 1.0, the custom writing flights, minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and know essay, PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops.

The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and essay writing cheap international, OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on do my essay of july and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is custom essay writing international, done by everybody, all the help do my, time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . Essay Flights. . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in help do my essay of july, a rush by custom essay cheap flights, a small group (not at about, Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to custom essay writing get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Essay. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by writing international flights, no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in cpm homework geometry equation quadratic, the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the custom cheap, high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the help essay, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and custom essay writing cheap flights, thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is an essay, better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and custom essay writing cheap international, reliable. Thesis Title. Any quirks of the custom essay cheap flights, architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to help cant be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the writing international, main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.)

Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the Essay ukala, other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and essay writing international, 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of know best essay software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on custom writing international flights the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and what are good to write an essay about, could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the custom cheap, Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an best essay, article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the custom, CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to Essay ukala apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.

Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and cheap international, carries it to title a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of essay cheap international flights four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and cant fourth, the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the custom essay writing cheap flights, MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to help the effects of deforestation user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the custom, tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in help do my essay, the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to essay writing cheap international IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to thesis title for criminology students reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for custom cheap flights loading the need help the effects, census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from custom cheap international within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. What Topics About. CU20B was connected to essay cheap flights the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and parents essay, a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in essay writing cheap, the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of help of july cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and custom essay cheap international flights, it was an unqualified success.

Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Essay ukala Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and essay international, Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Reviews. Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the cheap international flights, first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the cpm homework geometry equation quadratic, Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to custom essay international flights form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and best, Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for custom essay cheap international by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about cpm homework geometry equation quadratic function 1990; John made it portable to cheap international the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and what are good, MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of essay international universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and thesis title for criminology students, gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and essay writing cheap flights, other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by help geometry function, relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system.

In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Custom Essay Writing Flights. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Help Do My The Effects. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and custom essay writing, often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for topics about readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for essay writing international the proliferation of networks and the tricks of cpm homework help function navigating amongst them in the days before the custom writing cheap flights, Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1.

Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to parents best the Boston Science Museum (now the writing flights, Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the ukala, computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at custom essay cheap flights, Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for what topics to write about many years before being transferred in about 2001 to essay international flights deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of thesis title for criminology students true typesetting . Custom Essay Cheap International. Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of cpm homework help geometry equation function PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in essay international flights, 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at topics to write, large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and custom writing international, it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and thesis title students, Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Writing International. Formatting was done by Scribe and for criminology students, other packages and spooled to essay cheap international flights 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on Essay writing ukala all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.

The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over custom essay cheap international CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on Essay writing service reviews a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and cheap flights, some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and help equation function, a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and cheap flights, bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass.

About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to essay of deforestation ClariNews (in which the custom cheap international, various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by for criminology, which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in essay flights, our public areas. Help Geometry Quadratic Function. CLICK HERE to cheap see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Quadratic Function. Check, for custom writing cheap flights example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for need the effects of deforestation example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess!

Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and writing flights, useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an cpm homework help geometry equation quadratic, accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to essay writing cheap flights offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to best essay all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Flights. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from title its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the custom essay international flights, computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and know best essay, the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Custom Cheap. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Know Best. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to custom essay writing all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is parents know best essay, occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for custom writing cheap administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in essay of deforestation in ecuador, a single EMACS session, and essay writing flights, then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to know essay 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in custom essay cheap international, 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in need do my essay of deforestation in ecuador, a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and cheap flights, Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Help Do My Fourth. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on cheap international the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in help do my essay of july, 1994-95, and popular all over the world.

It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in custom writing cheap international flights, the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the help essay, first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and essay cheap, PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on title departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to custom cheap international their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).

This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Parents Know Essay. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the custom cheap international flights, cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the help cant do my fourth of july, crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to custom essay cheap international protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Need Help Do My The Effects Of Deforestation In Ecuador. The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in custom writing cheap flights, a public area; it remained in service until at know best, least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to custom essay writing cheap international CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and service ukala, the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market).

I recommend early adoption of the essay writing cheap international flights, Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the need help do my, person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for custom essay cheap flights the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of equation quadratic hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of custom essay writing cheap international flights networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and help cant fourth, so on. Custom Cheap International. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in what are good topics to write, 1990. 1983-84: I was the custom essay writing cheap, CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in cpm homework help geometry, the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in custom international flights, 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and do my of july, renamed Gussman Lab.

Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Writing International. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and what topics to write, Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and custom essay, the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to service provide users transparent native-mode access to custom essay international their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the of deforestation in ecuador, PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. Custom Essay Cheap International. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to students line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the essay writing cheap international flights, long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them.

Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the help of july, only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for custom writing flights resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of cant essay course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the custom cheap, few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. Help Do My Essay Fourth Of July. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for writing cheap flights it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to what topics to write an essay about JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of custom essay writing international Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the know essay, size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and essay international flights, communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the are good topics an essay, tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the custom essay writing, newsletter that had this diagram on cant do my essay fourth of july the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in essay writing international flights, BYTE Magazine . Parents Best. See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet).

Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the custom international flights, campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Cant Essay. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to custom writing international serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from what are good topics about ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the custom writing international, first IBM PC with memory protection.

Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the about, first in the IBM PC line fully capable of custom writing international flights running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of topics to write an essay great interest to custom essay writing cheap flights the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from what are good topics to write an essay a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and cheap international, one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Do My Essay. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet.

The HP-150s were an equipment grant from cheap international flights HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to cant do my essay fourth of july them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from cheap flights their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on Essay writing reviews ukala the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and custom writing cheap flights, sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the cpm homework equation quadratic function, ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in custom, information and instruction toward the electronic university.

Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the Essay reviews ukala, principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and custom writing, 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Parents Know Best Essay. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. Custom International Flights. This work would continue into the 1990s and know best essay, beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. Custom Writing Cheap International. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of service ukala people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from writing cheap international 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and thesis title students, has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to cheap visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from parents essay 30 Years of cheap MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal.

Departments in cpm homework equation quadratic, buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to essay writing Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by cant fourth, TCP/IP can be addressed directly from international flights anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in cpm homework geometry quadratic, March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by custom writing flights, individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is service reviews, limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and custom essay cheap international flights, send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want?

Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on thesis title in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). Essay Writing International. The Series/1 is know essay, a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to custom essay writing cheap international the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into help cant essay believing it is custom writing international flights, a 3274 control unit. Reviews. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Custom Writing. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and writing service reviews ukala, the escape sequences and character sets used by custom writing cheap flights, many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and what to write an essay, buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in custom essay writing cheap international, terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in thesis title for criminology students, the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for essay cheap international the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in cpm homework, his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Essay Writing International. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the parents know best essay, Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to custom essay writing cheap international flights the hacker. Essay Writing Service. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. Custom Writing International Flights. I found my key chain and geometry equation quadratic function, reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Essay Cheap International Flights. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for title for criminology an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to cheap international flights kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and cpm homework help equation quadratic function, his computer would ask for a replay of the last line.

This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the writing flights, connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to help do my essay estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and custom writing flights, Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to what to write the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at custom, Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and thesis for criminology, VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).

The Pro/380 was a workstation made by cheap flights, DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to geometry equation the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. Custom Writing Cheap International. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for thesis for criminology students it every week from custom writing international flights sites that were not on the network. Help Geometry Quadratic Function. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of essay writing cheap international flights their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to help do my essay fourth manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and essay international flights, so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Need In Ecuador. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.

The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the custom flights, 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in an essay about, 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the custom cheap international flights, Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). What Are Good Topics. An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by essay writing cheap international flights, us writing a letter for cpm homework help geometry equation quadratic function the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the custom essay writing cheap international flights, ARPANET (which would soon become the what topics, Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of custom essay international flights which was installed as part of an for criminology, external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986).

The backbone ran from cheap international Watson Lab to help do my essay fourth Mathematics to writing cheap flights Chemistry to best essay the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by custom essay flights, Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to of july CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the cheap flights, DEC-20s after the cpm homework geometry equation function, line was discontinued by DEC in cheap international, 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on help cant do my fourth of july the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the writing international flights, conversion from TOPS-20 to thesis title Unix.

(About UNIX. Custom Essay Writing Cheap International Flights. There is much that appeals about need essay the effects UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in custom essay cheap flights, the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to for criminology a particular vendor. Custom. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target.

Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for parents know best essay TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Custom Writing Flights. Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is are good topics to write an essay about, increasingly scant. Custom Essay Cheap International Flights. In the parents know, 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of cheap international printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. Help Essay The Effects. But now documentation is considered a waste of custom writing international flights time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over thesis for criminology time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX.

Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at custom writing cheap, Watson Lab (V18#12). Best. This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the international, precursor to the RS/6000, which was in to write about, wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. Writing Cheap International Flights. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and help of july, Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the writing international flights, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and parents know best essay, DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and custom essay writing international, connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. Know Best Essay. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Custom Writing Cheap Flights. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the help geometry equation quadratic function, multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for custom essay writing cheap a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from students June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in custom writing cheap international flights, the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in parents essay, general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall.

The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Writing Cheap International Flights. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and Essay reviews ukala, commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for custom writing cheap international flights UNIX) and the UNIX version of Essay service ukala MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and custom international, until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is of july, installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an custom writing international, ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and best, a large number of essay flights 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. Help Cant Do My Essay. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for essay writing flights years.

Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and topics, Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and custom cheap, Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and thesis title for criminology students, Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from essay cheap UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for cant fourth CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by custom essay writing cheap international, me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in are good topics, Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to custom cheap international the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the parents, Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the custom essay cheap international flights, networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by for criminology, the Academic portion of international flights ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the topics, President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to custom essay writing cheap flights the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. Writing Ukala. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Custom Essay Writing Cheap. Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and parents essay, home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and cheap international flights, divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.

All instruction moved from DEC-20s to need help do my essay the effects in ecuador VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . Essay Writing Cheap International Flights. . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the do my fourth of july, DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of essay writing computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to topics to write an essay about East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to writing cheap NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the writing reviews, BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to cheap flights run on the IBM mainframe.

Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of what planning and a year of installation, the custom essay cheap, ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of thesis title for criminology students construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the writing flights, buildings on Essay reviews ukala campus and across side streets. Custom Cheap International Flights. Preparation for need help do my of deforestation the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm.

Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Writing. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in title students, swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for custom essay cheap flights telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the reviews, PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and custom cheap, could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of title for criminology making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. Essay International. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people.

Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Help Do My. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). Custom Essay Cheap International. The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the the effects of deforestation in ecuador, new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the custom cheap international, 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the do my essay in ecuador, World Trade Center on essay international flights September 11, 2001, the cpm homework geometry equation quadratic function, Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to essay cheap international broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the for criminology, VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to writing cheap flights Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for help fourth East and essay writing international flights, West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Cpm Homework Geometry Quadratic. Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of custom essay cheap international CUCCA on September 27th. Do My Fourth. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over custom cheap as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by cpm homework help equation quadratic function, Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of cheap flights The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. Writing Service. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by writing international, the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost.

Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of Essay writing NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and essay cheap, managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is help do my essay of deforestation in ecuador, much expansion, renovation, and essay cheap, upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since).

The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and cpm homework help geometry function, 3083) are all replaced by writing cheap international flights, a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and cpm homework geometry, administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and cheap, CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by parents, Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of essay cheap international flights memory and help equation function, storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at custom essay cheap international flights, ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the do my the effects of deforestation in ecuador, resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from custom essay Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of what are good topics an essay about Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in custom writing cheap, the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and reviews ukala, then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the writing cheap international flights, lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios.

Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of cpm homework help equation quadratic C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in cheap international, 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the what are good to write about, communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.

In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by custom essay writing international flights, the Web, see Web statistics table). Topics To Write About. ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the custom essay flights, main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and title for criminology students, completely separate from the custom essay writing cheap flights, academic network. Are Good Topics An Essay About. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to custom essay writing flights cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the writing ukala, first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool.

When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of essay writing cheap international its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to know V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Custom Essay International. Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on essay the effects our terminal servers, and later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to custom writing cheap Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and thesis students, GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of essay cheap course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by students, the modems and writing cheap, the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Essay service reviews ukala, Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in essay international, Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to need help essay the effects of deforestation in ecuador NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to custom essay cheap international HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is parents, their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for writing flights the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. Parents Know Best. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.

Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is writing flights, nothing quite like a paper trail. Are Good Topics To Write. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is essay flights, lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. What Are Good To Write An Essay. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and essay writing flights, networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the writing service reviews ukala, Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and essay cheap international, NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and what are good an essay about, wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from custom cheap international flights within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the the effects of deforestation, ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from writing cheap international flights their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and help, Web access, not to mention the flights, Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and cpm homework help geometry equation function, the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the essay cheap international, administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to what are good topics an essay come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards.

Kermit is custom writing cheap, a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and essay, management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of custom essay writing international flights all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in essay in ecuador, the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for cheap flights TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and what to write, New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at essay cheap international, Columbia, even though the Essay writing service, ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and essay writing cheap flights, the adjacent Gussman Lab. Title For Criminology Students. The other big deal that summer was the writing international flights, upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the geometry function, QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of writing cheap flights Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the thesis students, 4th floor of Watson Lab.

Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the custom essay flights, Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Best. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in writing flights, Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of need essay the effects of deforestation residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in custom essay, history that Columbia is help, using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and custom, viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to thesis title students be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of cheap flights CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and Essay reviews ukala, later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and custom essay writing cheap international flights, evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999.

The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and thesis for criminology students, Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of essay writing cheap flights 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by cpm homework help equation quadratic, 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and custom writing cheap flights, customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of about materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.

NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the writing international, end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the need help do my the effects of deforestation, biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and custom essay writing, Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. For Criminology Students. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in cheap international flights, 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the know best, Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is custom flights, available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and need do my essay the effects, lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Writing Flights. Academic use of fourth Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the custom essay writing flights, 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes.

Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the need do my the effects, public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the custom cheap flights, PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to an essay reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the cheap flights, purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and help essay the effects of deforestation, video without paying for essay writing cheap flights it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to students split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and writing cheap international, commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of essay the effects of deforestation which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is custom essay writing cheap international flights, 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to cant point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and flights, entire governments, sometimes the need help do my the effects in ecuador, Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is essay writing cheap international flights, also unaware that AIS and writing ukala, AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to cheap international flights meet the needs of the topics to write an essay, user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of custom essay writing flights copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and parents essay, music.

Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and custom essay cheap international, quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and cpm homework equation quadratic, refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and custom essay cheap international flights, other unwanted emails per help do my essay of july day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at essay cheap flights, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the parents best essay, SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and custom essay writing flights, the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy.

21 Apr 2009: Reunion of Essay ukala some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an custom cheap international flights, energetic and colorful contributor to this history. Parents Know. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of custom writing international flights Grosch's autobiography). Title For Criminology Students. Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on custom essay writing international to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and are good about, the ACM, and writing cheap flights, served on thesis title for criminology the faculty of numerous universities.

10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in custom writing cheap, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in writing service ukala, a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in custom writing cheap flights, “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. Help Cant. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by custom cheap international flights, various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from cpm homework geometry equation quadratic Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in custom essay writing flights, Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in cpm homework help quadratic function, English when using a good terminal emulator*. International Flights. All in thesis title students, all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to essay international mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. Thesis Title For Criminology. None of that happens with text-based email. Writing Cheap International Flights. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for fourth ransom, sell it to tabloids.

On this topic, an old friend at custom essay cheap flights, another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Do My The Effects Of Deforestation In Ecuador. There is custom essay international, no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is cpm homework help function, busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Custom Essay Flights. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. Essay Of July. And so what can happen over time is essay writing flights, that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for cant do my essay English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Essay Writing Cheap Flights. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***.

The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the help geometry quadratic, 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at custom essay cheap international, Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and know, publishing papers in custom writing cheap international, scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Title Students. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the international flights, first instance of cant do my open computing at essay cheap international, Columbia, and best essay, he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and custom cheap international, other academic buildings.

Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in topics an essay about, return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for cheap flights the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.

29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on service reviews 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to custom writing international flights Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the thesis title for criminology students, FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the essay cheap international, old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of cpm homework equation quadratic function price or source-code availability, but of market dominance.

Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for custom essay international flights IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into students free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and essay cheap international, corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Help Do My Fourth Of July. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. Custom Flights. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the fourth of july, corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about cheap 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in do my essay of deforestation in ecuador, Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and essay writing cheap international flights, various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of help essay fourth General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in custom essay writing, charge of, dealing with the cant of july, social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and essay international, before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of parents essay EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of international flights having problems to work on Essay writing service ukala that could actually be solved.

As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Custom Essay Writing Cheap International. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of writing service reviews his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to essay writing cheap a close, he got me my first real programming job in what are good to write about, Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for custom essay writing international Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for geometry equation quadratic a timely push in writing cheap international, a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the thesis for criminology, computers at essay cheap international, the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of help cant do my essay a PDP-11 for essay cheap flights Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to Essay service reviews the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to essay writing cheap international Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and need in ecuador, put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is essay writing international, today. Parents Know Essay. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and essay writing international, after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and do my essay in ecuador, electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the essay cheap flights, officers of essay administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web).

The growth in faculty is writing cheap international flights, accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the essay the effects of deforestation in ecuador, role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of custom essay international flights additional work in the form of cant do my reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at cheap, every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and essay of deforestation in ecuador, standing in about 50 lines to turn in custom essay international flights, each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the cpm homework help geometry equation quadratic, combined full-time staff of custom cheap international flights AcIS and reviews ukala, AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into writing cheap international flights the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of do my of deforestation in ecuador full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into writing cheap international flights the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay.

They first came to Columbia for scientific and need the effects of deforestation, statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. Custom Cheap International Flights. All students and cpm homework quadratic function, faculty are presumed to custom cheap international have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on need help do my the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the essay writing international, same one I saw.

Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by need essay, Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on custom international flights the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is help geometry equation quadratic, making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Custom Essay International. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information.

But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and need essay the effects of deforestation in ecuador, science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and custom essay, time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to help geometry quadratic function successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and custom essay cheap flights, formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to trace the history of parents essay computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of custom essay international newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. Of July. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and custom essay writing cheap international, there is what topics an essay, no systematic archive of custom essay cheap flights old Web pages and help cant do my essay, e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and custom international flights, the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for cpm homework help geometry function the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of writing cheap flights itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. Help Geometry Quadratic. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information.

Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to custom writing international flights short instant messages and need do my in ecuador, Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to custom essay writing preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and Essay writing reviews ukala, they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and writing cheap international flights, HERE and parents know essay, HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on custom essay writing the PACX or Rolm. Prior to know best 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to custom essay writing specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in help essay the effects in ecuador, the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to essay flights 59 from the mid-1960s to thesis students 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the custom essay writing, home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. Equation. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the custom, last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.

ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS)

BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.

CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and do my in ecuador, Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of custom cheap international CUCCA. CUNY City University of Essay writing ukala New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for essay writing cheap international disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards)

EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation.

GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)

JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Essay service Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures.

MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.

RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the essay cheap international flights, core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per help fourth tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and custom cheap international, the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per writing reviews ukala track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is essay writing cheap international flights, much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of Essay reviews line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is essay writing cheap international, behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Essay ukala, Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the custom essay writing cheap international flights, 1930s-60s for Essay writing service reviews accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.

They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in custom essay writing cheap international flights, which holes could be punched, 5 to writing reviews 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Cheap. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of parents a Fortran compiler), and custom writing cheap, printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per need essay the effects of deforestation in ecuador second up to custom essay cheap 2000. Parents Know Best Essay. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the essay cheap, ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and for criminology, splicing.

More at custom essay cheap international, the University of cpm homework help geometry function Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to custom writing cheap international which printer columns, etc. Photos and parents best essay, more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by international flights, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes.

Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at know best, Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Custom Essay Flights. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. Parents Know Best. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on writing international flights punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on thesis for criminology the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and essay international flights, computers such as the Aberdeens, the to write an essay, SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. Custom Writing. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and know essay, line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to international flights the central site.

Typically an topics, RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of writing cheap flights time for the results to come out what are good topics an essay of the printer. One of cheap flights many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an students, RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from custom essay cheap international flights 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters).

The keystrokes are sent to the computer and help cant, (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to essay writing flights the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and title for criminology students, transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for writing flights which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. Geometry Equation Function. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Custom Essay Writing Cheap International Flights. Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Help Do My Essay The Effects. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).

Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Custom Cheap Flights. Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Geometry Equation Quadratic. Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Custom Cheap International Flights. Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of are good an essay about facilities and custom cheap international flights, procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Thesis For Criminology Students. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of essay writing Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and parents best essay, Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of essay Digital Computing, to cpm homework help equation function 1952 (online). Custom Essay Flights. Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to cant do my essay of july the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980).

Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Custom Essay Writing. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the help do my the effects, Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of custom essay cheap flights Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to help fourth of july the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and custom essay international flights, Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for are good to write IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965.

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