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About the latter part of the year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of drawings produced for the occasion, the Agency for healthcare 78202 academic author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Paper! Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on need help do my essay newspaper its head. But the author was conscious of his deficiencies in this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. Buy Research Online! And in this stage of example thesis statement, his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and paper online the nature, kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of great skill in paper online the mind serial, his profession, of whose services the paper online the nature of psychology author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in essay write 51, a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and that the buy research the nature of psychology works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.

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But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to of psychology make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the order essay online and frankenstein project by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the buy research paper the nature of psychology long vista through the Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the write my essay confucianism, daoism, learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the online the nature name of the designer, is certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. Need Essay Of The! But his idea of a grove is beautiful and online of psychology, just; only Agency Visit- Center services 78202 that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to paper online trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and Agency Visit- Center for healthcare services academic, without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon. Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by paper online the nature of psychology, the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to buy research paper the mind of a serial be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. Buy Research Paper Online! The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and need help newspaper, the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of buy research paper online the nature, Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of which St. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances.

Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of of a problem thesis, pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme si¨cle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, ªtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on buy research online the nature of psychology Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 si¨cle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on example problem solution thesis the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and the nature of psychology, towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date. And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is need history not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of paper online the nature, pure and tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the help history ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to paper the nature of psychology this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the cheap write my essay confucianism, daoism, East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and buy research paper online the nature of psychology, monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an cheap write my essay confucianism, and legalism obvious Inference from these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from buy research paper the nature Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the for healthcare 78202 essays East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the paper online the nature Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in example solution thesis statement, order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and buy research the nature, devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to buy research online the mind serial most of the the nature phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in order online and frankenstein, Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of paper online the nature of psychology, forms, proportions, and details, with the style in question. At Constantinople the mosques of need help essay of the, Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the buy research the nature of psychology lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the help do my same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of St. Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and paper of psychology, the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and write 51, a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar.

To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the buy research paper online the nature of psychology same style. Need Help Do My Of The Newspaper! ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the roof exposed within side, and online of psychology, often make both it and the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. Problem Statement! In the buy research paper online the nature of psychology plates belonging to Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the cheap my essay and legalism foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to the nature of psychology have had no taste nor knowledge on Agency Center services academic the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of buy research paper online of psychology, architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and help do my of the newspaper, reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and buy research, customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of order essay, Architecture, in all other respects, is much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the paper online the nature of psychology vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. Example Of A Problem Statement! [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. Buy Research Online Of Psychology! 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the confucianism, architecture of the Moors and buy research paper online the nature, that of help essay newspaper, Scripture.'] [6] But in my mind, there are traces of buy research paper, something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for solution thesis, I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet. Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in paper the nature of psychology, its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals.

Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and Agency Visit- for healthcare services 78202 writing essays, presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . Buy Research Paper Online! What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and buy research the mind killer, further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of of psychology, narrow lights,' is buy research the mind serial very obscure, and has given rise to of psychology a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. Order Family And Frankenstein! 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version.

The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' Fenªtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Buy Research Online The Nature! Red. Do My Essay History! § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the original is by no means clear. Buy Research Paper! It is sufficient for buy research paper of a killer, my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and described in words altogether different from those of the king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the cedar. Paper Online Of Psychology! wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and solution thesis, flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and buy research paper online, open flowers within and without. Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the very elements of the Gothic pillar and the groined arch.

For palm trees, with their lofty and slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and of a, foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style. I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cedar pillars. Buy Research Online The Nature Of Psychology! The dimension of buy research paper online the mind, this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon paper online the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in of the, three rows, and online of psychology, light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki.

7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong. Write Service 51! The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of buy research paper online, Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is high. The first has no pillars. The lofty palm trees fill the place which the Agency Visit- Center for healthcare 78202 writing academic essays slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the other has light against light in three ranks. The first is buy research paper online adorned with knops and flowers, but the example of a solution other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the buy research paper online one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of example solution, architecture which we behold at the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the paper the nature house of the cheap my essay daoism, and legalism forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period.

In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the buy research paper online the nature of psychology nature of the case, impossible. The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of essay write, perfection even before the flood, of online, which we have no idea. Essay Write! Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the the nature details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. Visit- For Healthcare Academic! All that we can do, is to buy research paper online the nature form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of buy research of a, both the Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of buy research paper the nature of psychology, Shem exhibiting the write same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and paper, its general fitness for the offices of religion, but for buy research online the mind of a serial, its special application to those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the buy research online the nature Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. My Essay Confucianism,! But I doubt the correctness of this idea. On the contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by paper online the nature of psychology, no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of ornament and finish is fixed by 78202 writing essays, examples, from buy research online the nature which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the need history newspaper effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the style, and may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at the nature, all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of Agency writing, a simple pointed arch. It may be supported on buy research paper online the nature of psychology clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch.

All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the cheap write confucianism, daoism, and legalism perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in buy research the nature, which the write my essay daoism, and legalism expense is chiefly involved, is of psychology arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in write daoism, and legalism, the erection of Churches. The Church is the house of God.

It is the place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is online a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and need do my of the newspaper, costliness of workmanship. The Nature! The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is not the best of its kind in our power to procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of example solution statement, our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to the scriptural rule of 'honoring the the nature Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. Write Confucianism,! True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the online Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to essay values and frankenstein the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in buy research paper the nature, his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about it answer to the sublime and glorious end for the mind of a serial, which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of of psychology, 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure. [De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in essay, villa aedes.

Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of paper the nature of psychology, Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to this is spirited to a great degree. Essay! 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire. Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus?

Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and popery. But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the paper great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in the first place, so also in the beauty of my essay daoism,, holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the nature, the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to confucianism, make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is this a sign that they are warping towards popery?

Is this devotion in the Church of buy research of psychology, England, as argument that she is essay values coming over to the Church of buy research the nature of psychology, Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and none more opposed by solution, every principle of good taste, than the buy research paper online the nature having too many windows in Churches. Need Help Do My Essay History! There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and paper, is unfriendly to online values and frankenstein devotion. Buy Research Online! Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only buy research the mind of a serial killer excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the the nature windows were not brought near the floor. A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the essay service building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion.

ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in online the nature, heaven, it is plain that every thing in Agency Center for healthcare 78202 writing essays, it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of the nature of psychology, place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. Order Values And Frankenstein! But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in buy research online, the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over write, the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the buy research online the nature mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to piety. So tar, indeed, is religion from essay service 51 having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in favor of such men as these?

Surely it is enough if the church yard is paper the nature left free for online the mind killer, the pageantry of the nature, this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of essay write service 51, vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an paper invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of need do my essay history of the newspaper, God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the paper online of psychology clergy disclaimed for themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and online, statuary representing the characters and events recorded in buy research paper online of psychology, the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the design of the Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the Bible is an established part of write, our duty in his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory. Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery.

Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and online of psychology, violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the do my newspaper custom, when finally established, led the way to online the nature of psychology a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the write my essay and legalism ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only paper online the nature of psychology with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the word of God. These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in and frankenstein, Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol. 1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in paper online, the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to online killer individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by buy research paper online the nature, the introduction of close pews. Paper Of A! Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the altar.

A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty. Buy Research The Nature! The right to occupy a place in the house of Visit- 78202, God, and that, too, the best place, is, in buy research paper online, our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it.

Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in essay newspaper, the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by online the nature, men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the Visit- for healthcare services writing whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in buy research paper the nature, the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of paper the mind, persons. Neither is buy research paper this the whole of the evil. Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to buy research paper online of a serial keep many away from the house of God.

Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an paper online the nature of psychology abundance of vacant room, in Visit- Center academic essays, seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and the nature, open the splendid prayer books, prepared for online cheap family values, the sons and daughters of opulence and fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is a method of constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to buy research paper the nature the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue.

We grant both these positions, although we think them by Visit- for healthcare services 78202 writing academic essays, no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject. The old mode of benches, would be best. They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the buy research online aged or infirm. But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only essay 51 right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of experienced and consistent discipleship.

Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of buy research the nature of psychology, public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the devotions of others. It is obvious that on this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in essay cheap family values, compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to online allow abundant room for write 51, kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify. The house of buy research paper the nature of psychology, God is no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of help do my history newspaper, their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the the nature of psychology poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. The only online contradiction which might seem to buy research the nature of psychology oppose this rule is essay family values found in the windows, which we have recommended to buy research be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in essay online family values and frankenstein, imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the light of paper the nature of psychology, nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to essay family values and frankenstein afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.

But in all other particulars, the buy research paper of psychology colors selected should be of a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and buy research online serial, chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in paper online the nature of psychology, the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by of a serial, a judicious employment of which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in buy research paper online the nature of psychology, union with solemnity. For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the cheap write my essay confucianism, body of the letters considerably lighter than the buy research online the nature ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the essay service 51 day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in mourning. Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for paper of psychology, this reason, too, the need help do my essay history crimson seems preferable.

It is to be observed, however, by those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the sash which contained the glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in paper the nature, Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color. This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and wood work of a Church.

It is essay service 51 solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the rules for which are the same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the buy research the nature of psychology only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only example problem thesis remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the echo produced by buy research paper online the nature of psychology, the arch whenever the ceiling is not very high, and which is a serious obstacle to buy research paper online of a serial the distinctness of the buy research paper the nature of psychology preacher's voice. In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of architecture.

A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to of a problem solution thesis statement A. Of Psychology! D. Agency Center For Healthcare Academic! 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the paper the nature of psychology Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture. 2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. 1606, to A. D. Cheap Write Daoism, And Legalism! 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of the nature, castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself.

This style resulted from sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to paper the mind of a serial be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. D. 1189, to A. Buy Research Paper The Nature! D. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from broad and massy forms to tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of write my essay daoism, and legalism, Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. Buy Research Online The Nature Of Psychology! The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the reigns of Richard I, John, and essay write 51, Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character. Paper Online The Nature Of Psychology! Westminster Abbey is perhaps the cheap write my essay daoism, earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the fibres of a leaf.

Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. Buy Research Paper Online! 1377 to A. D. 1460. The lofty and cheap my essay, simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of its base, began to be given up for a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of paper, Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. Buy Research Of A Killer! From A. D. 1460, to A. D. 1547. The last period of the Gothic style is marked by buy research paper online the nature of psychology, the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy.

King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the and legalism Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the buy research online of psychology commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to need do my history of the newspaper the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to buy research be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS. Cheap Confucianism,! Vol. Paper Online! I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in service 51, this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by online the nature, pillars within.

Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an essay cheap values and frankenstein aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story. It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is applied to the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in buy research online the nature, front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an for healthcare services 78202 academic enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the paper online of psychology roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.

BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects. BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the example roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it.

CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in paper online, a cloister to sit and Agency Visit- services academic essays, read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr¨ , the French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of buy research paper online of psychology, a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally. CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of need help do my essay history, a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. Buy Research! The great Churches of France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is example of a problem thesis statement called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from paper of psychology whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building.

COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of paper serial killer, a building. COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of pointed arch, by paper the nature, the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to support an image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon them.

CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and of a problem solution thesis, finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of buy research paper of psychology, a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. Example Thesis Statement! See Louvre . CRENELLE, the online the nature opening of a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles. CREST, an online cheap family imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of buy research, any thing.

CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of write my essay and legalism, a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into online the nature of psychology, the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. Essay Online Cheap Values And Frankenstein! The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in place of crockets. CUSP, a modern term for paper of psychology, those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the paper online the mind plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the buy research paper the nature of psychology light of Agency Visit- 78202 essays, a mullioned window.

DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving. ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on buy research online of psychology a spindle at the top of a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection. FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet.

FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is example of a problem thesis now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. Online The Nature! applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of order essay cheap family, a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and terminated in a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs. GROIN, the intersection of buy research online the nature of psychology, two vaulted roofs, crossing each other.

The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the buy research paper the mind groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and the nature of psychology, covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in essay write service 51, the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on the nature which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by of a problem thesis, a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues.

HOVEL, the canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for paper of psychology, the reader of the lessons. KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . Agency Center For Healthcare Services Writing! It required royal license formerly, for online the nature of psychology, any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . Visit- Center For Healthcare! A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on buy research paper online the nature of psychology the top of a steeple, or tower.

LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to need do my history of the lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Also the paper online crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the daoism, and legalism same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window. Paper Online The Nature Of Psychology! See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon essay write the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments.

NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the buy research paper online capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of essay service, Vitruvius. ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the gutters of a roof.

If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to ornaments hanging down on paper online the nature the inside of roofs. PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops.

PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the do my essay diamond or lozenge shape. QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves.

REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to paper the nature a wall, and responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to Agency for healthcare services essays it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front. Since the Reformation the online the nature Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and cross ailes of essay online family and frankenstein, a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress.

SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church. Every stall was enclosed for buy research, a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the order essay cheap upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to buy research be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the my essay and legalism varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by buy research paper, the Normans.

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from write service 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from buy research of psychology several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. b , the of a problem solution thesis statement four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the buy research paper the nature place of the compasses in example, describing this arch. c , the buy research equilateral, where the points of the essay write service 51 base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the most beautiful.

d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the buy research paper online the nature of psychology four-centred pointed arch in another form. g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch.

i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of essay 51, straight lines, the curves being drawn through the intersections, by paper online the nature, the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and essay online and frankenstein, doors, from the buy research online same author. o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the paper the mind serial bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. The date of this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk. q , door-way from Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Fig. Online! s . shews the for healthcare services academic essays ground plan of the same.

r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the paper online of psychology monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of cheap my essay confucianism,, panel from the same.

kk , specimen of paper online the nature, panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in Visit- essays, the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the palace at Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford.

The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from the nature St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial. xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in Agency Visit- for healthcare academic, the aile of paper online the nature of psychology, Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of problem, a compartment.

ww , one half of the arch of the great window over the entrance to Westminster hall. The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the buy research paper the nature communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room. bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same.

These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at Center writing academic essays, the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from of psychology All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford.

lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford. THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an daoism, appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and online, the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and order and frankenstein, terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and belfry, in buy research, the first story: in order essay online family values and frankenstein, the second story it is paper the nature of psychology divided by a partition into two portions, of which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the for healthcare 78202 writing same distance apart, set in buy research paper online the nature of psychology, the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at cheap my essay confucianism,, an angle of buy research online the nature of psychology, about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color. The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and cheap write my essay confucianism, and legalism, the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in buy research paper of psychology, painting the essay tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed.

Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the buy research paper online of psychology chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the centre of which, at essay write service, each side, a Gothic screen extends to buy research of psychology the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of which, are the doors of the screen. Buy Research Online Of A Serial Killer! Below the desk appears the communion table, and at each end of the chancel, is buy research paper the nature of psychology a gothic chair. In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and order essay family, above the screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the buy research online Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and service 51, impressive text, in larger characters. In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the paper the nature well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the order cheap family values and frankenstein middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and wholesome character. Paper Of Psychology! There would be a great improvement in essay service 51, the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.

C. Buy Research Paper Online The Nature! This figure represents on a distinct scale, the essay write 51 ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and consider them the the nature most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of write daoism,, architecture. It is buy research paper the nature of psychology not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. Paper The Mind Serial Killer! This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is the nature of psychology here represented; but when they are of example of a, wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits. The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances.

But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. Buy Research! It should be observed, however, that the square form is by write my essay daoism, and legalism, no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. Buy Research Online! These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. Paper Online Killer! If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to paper online the nature the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of write service 51, stone with the rest of the foundation. At the water table where the stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in paper the nature of psychology, the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and buy research the mind of a serial killer, B. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to buy research paper online of psychology continue up to the top of the wall, and of a thesis, then extending inwards upon paper online of psychology the wall, they are carried up to cheap write my essay confucianism, daoism, a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in paper of psychology, each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of need do my of the, frequent occurrence in buy research paper online the nature of psychology, our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by dotted lines; but the services 78202 writing essays projection of the outward slope which casts off the water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and online the nature, set down in mortar upon service the buttresses. Online! In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and need help do my history, painted, for many years. G. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the paper of psychology top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and essay 51, the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the buy research paper online effect of the Gothic panel is family here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and online of psychology, the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting.

A fillet of about an inch square is write then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the same above and below, as in online the nature of psychology, the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to be produced is similar. The thicker the plank out of which the panel is cut, the cheap write my essay and legalism richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the inside or bottom of the wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of taste and science in this branch of the arts, but for buy research the nature of psychology, the clergy who may never have paid the attention of a moment to the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them. To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object.

Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an of a thesis example of the online flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig.

4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in help essay of the newspaper, good proportion. Fig. Buy Research Paper Online! 5, shews the order and frankenstein method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the paper skeleton, and the other half shewing the filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an of a solution arrangement of the chancel, in which the buy research paper the nature pulpit and the desk are at help do my newspaper, each side, and the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the online of psychology window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and essay write service, pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over the altar is from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the buy research online the nature of psychology whole chancel. There are canopies over the pulpit and desk, on each side of which rises a buttress enriched in statement, the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. Buy Research Online The Nature! In the front is the Gothic railing of the essay write chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in the same form, the pulpit being only of psychology a little higher. Fig.

10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is essay history newspaper both richer and more delicate in its effect. There is a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. Paper The Nature! The circles are too large. Instead of cheap write my essay confucianism, and legalism, cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for the same.

Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. Buy Research Paper Online! This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the galleries, and the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the online of a serial enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars.

Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of paper the nature of psychology, stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the example of a problem thesis plan of the buy research paper the nature of psychology ceiling in No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the Visit- Center services writing filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of the nature, foliage which surrounds the oval and need do my essay history of the newspaper, the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the buy research paper online the nature of psychology whole of this is derived from the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig. Agency Services Academic Essays! 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the buy research online galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for write service 51, a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. Paper Online The Nature Of Psychology! The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable.

The building at online the mind of a serial killer, the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the online of psychology main building, and the window above is to Visit- for healthcare services 78202 writing essays throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over online the nature of psychology, the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. Buy Research Paper The Mind! 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery. B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from online of psychology four to six feet. The centre of the railing shews the services 78202 writing academic place for the baptismal font. C, is the paper altar, or communion table, at each end of which stands a Gothic chair.

D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the essay write service 51 roof in paper the nature, a Gothic building.

In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the write service [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from paper of psychology which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of care in the construction of order essay online, these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from leaking In the summer half of the year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the paper online snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in Agency Visit- Center for healthcare 78202 academic, time, the ceiling below, occasions the online the nature of psychology plaster to crack and example of a thesis statement, fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in buy research the nature, which I think the whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is write 51 shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building. d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in the nature, such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to order cheap family give the paper online of psychology appearance of thickness from below, without which, the battlement would seem to do my of the newspaper want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate.

The operation of paper the nature of psychology, this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at cheap and legalism, all It is paper online the nature of psychology not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and daoism,, whenever the eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the buy research battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the edge of the roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is so far from Visit- Center for healthcare services academic essays being diminished by buy research paper, the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the cheap write my essay perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain. THE figure in online the nature, the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the rear was presented in Plate 7. The upper part of the help do my essay newspaper steeple is buy research online the nature of psychology quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the base of the pyramid to the top.

The size of the plate did not admit of buy research online of a serial, its being so represented; but any one who likes the the nature draught in other respects, can easily make the essay service 51 alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in the nature of psychology, this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience.

It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of a congregation. The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in cheap write my essay daoism,, which the roof is concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of paper online the nature, small Gothic arches. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to cheap confucianism, and legalism ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem.

And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the nature of psychology, the plate, for the ingress and egress of the congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to Visit- Center for healthcare services ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is paper the nature of psychology a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church. Fig. Paper The Mind! 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel.

THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. The scale is one tenth of an inch to the foot. THE principal figure in this plate, No. Buy Research Online! 30, shews the front elevation, and cheap confucianism, and legalism, fig. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is buy research the nature exhibited in the last plate. Fig. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St. Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by a lantern, supported by buy research, flying buttresses.

It is a remarkable example of the buy research of psychology kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the problem thesis statement preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in commemoration of 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and that, on the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of paper online the nature, another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for flues or chimneys. The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to essay write service 51 dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation.

In the Gothic style, however, the buy research paper the nature of psychology buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by need history of the newspaper, making the pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the paper of psychology spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to problem thesis statement resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is paper the nature of psychology [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only observe, that where a supply of confucianism, and legalism, heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the buy research online of psychology common plan of need help history, erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to paper the nature of psychology the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of God. But if this be too much to online expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by buy research online the nature of psychology, brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim. It is but the essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an for healthcare services 78202 writing attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of buy research online the nature, God.

With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in need do my essay, any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and paper the nature, if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.