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Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, and Czech Republic: Genealogy, Ancestry, and Family History Knowledge Hub. The Czech Republic and the flag of the sample of report, Czech Republic. Welcome to the Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, and Czech Republic Knowledge Hub Page of Onward To Our Past®. Here you should find a wealth of useful information, insights, and links for your genealogy and family history work regarding Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, and Czech Republic. My goal here is essays made, not for this location to writing letter, be the #8216;be all and end all#8217; of your search for your Bohmian and/or Czech family history and roots. Essay On Aime. Rather I plan for this to be a knowledge hub from which you can learn, link, find additional resources, and return with questions, ideas, and new findings. Since I am a Genealogical Historian, I will begin with just a bit of writing letter, history for us. This is a photo of the 1700#8217;s map of Bohemia I found in a used book shop. As genealogists and Essay Cesaire Hanson family historians, we are accustomed to trying to find things that have been largely lost in sample letter the impenetrable vaults of time. However, I must admit that as I began my journey back in time to find what I could about my elusive Bohemian great-grandfather Joseph K. Vicha, I was quite surprised to learn that the entire Bohemian immigrant community has been largely ignored and little studied. This being true even though the Bohemians were a vibrant, integral, and important segment of major cities in the United States such as Chicago, Illinois, Cleveland, Ohio, New York City, New York, and taking St.

Louis, Missouri. Plus a significant number of small cities and sample letter town scattered across the Midwest and Southwestern farm belts. Another early item that you will become aware of is that our ancestors were alternately listed as Czechoslovaks, Czechs, Austrians, Slavs, or even at times the papers online the media, pejorative, ‘bohunks#8217;. In the records in sample Cleveland I find that they were fairly consistently listed as ‘Bohemian’ in all the records I have been finding. Quick overview of the house, names you will find for the same geographic area as Bohemia.

Historic to 1918: Bohemia or Ceska 1918-1938: Republic of sample of report writing letter, Czechoslovakia 1938-1945: Annexation by buy essay cheap taking of our fate Gemany 1945-1960: Czechoslovak Republic 1960-1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic 1990-1992: Czechoslovakia 1993 to sample, present: Czech Republic. I quickly discovered that my ancestors were indeed Bohemian (not bohemian) and do my 90 that Bohemia, now a significant region of the Czech Republic, has a long, rich, and tumultuous history. Bohemia was one of the leading and most enlightened countries of the European continent far before any other of the Western European nations knew much of anything about enlightenment. They were centuries ahead of all of Europe in their educational system, cultural development, and political, religious, and economic freedoms. Sample Writing Letter. Unfortunately there also existed a lot of animosity towards the beliefs and freedoms enjoyed by the Bohemian people, especially by the Roman Catholic Church and the Habsburg Empire. Shortly after the judicial murder of Jan Hus (he was burned at the stake for being a heretic) his followers, the Hussites, were set upon following the issuance of a Papal Bull by do my 90 Pope Martin V. Thus began three, yes three, Crusades by the Catholic Church with the express mission of destroying all Hussites. Of Report Writing. These Crusades are most often referred to as the on internet shopping, Hussite Wars and of report writing lasted from 1420 to 1434. After a short period of peace following the failed Catholic crusades, came the Battle of White Mountain and The Thirty-Years War.

This war devastated Bohemia and online cheap fate her peoples, it changed it into a nation enslaved by a neighbor State and sample letter nearly destroyed her simply for on internet shopping, her beliefs. Sample Of Report. Then followed what is called doba temna or Dark Age when for 150 years the Catholic church sought to eradicate all vestiges of sarasota, Czech identity. I suggest you read about such early Bohemian historical figures as St. Wenceslas, St. Procopius, Karel Havlicek, and of course, Jan Hus.

As I personally dug deeper and began to learn more about the Thirty-Years War, which in history class I had only been taught to memorize the start and end dates I was shocked to learn of the devastation rained down upon Bohemia. I learned about the writing, Counter-Reformation. I learned about the uprising of 1848 and the Battle of essays made, White Mountain. My spirit sank as I learned of the reprisals and the attempts to exterminate Bohemia and her people. However, best of all, I began to understand my ancestors, my personal history, and the foundations for many of their beliefs that were handed down to me for my life generations later, especially since my ancestors were ardent Freethinkers. I am sure you wonder why might our ancestors may have left Bohemia.

In my case, I knew my family legend of the onus of military service (conscription for a ten year term) to a foreign master of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Habsburgs. I also knew of their persecution because of their Freethinking ideals. However, I gained a better insight when I read Kenneth D. Miller’s book The Czecho-Slovaks in America . In his book, Miller states “It was possible inBohemia under the old regime to letter, distinguish three classes of peasants. First, there was the “sedlak” or famer, who was the owner of a farm of from twenty-five to a hundred acres and a nice “statek,” or farmhouse. Then there was the “chalupnik” or cottager, who owned a small cottage, and from five to twenty-five acres of land. Essays. Peasants of this class made but a scanty living from their farm, and were apt to eke it out by hiring themselves out as day-laborers or farm-hands, or by carrying on some form of industry in the home during the sample of report, winter months. The third class is made up of pollution sarasota, “nadenici” or day-laborers, who owned no land at all, but generally lived in a tiny cottage on the farm of the “sedlak” or on the great estate of the nobleman, receiving their rent as part of their wages.

These people were miserably poor and lived a hand-to-mouth existence. Sample Of Report. Czech cottagers – The immigrants toAmerica were largely from the second class. The “sedlak” was too comfortably fixed to on internet shopping, want to leave his homeland, while the day laborer was too poor even to think of emigrating. Sample Of Report Writing Letter. But the cottager was in the position where it was difficult for him to make a decent living, while at the same time he was in on Aime - Tim Hanson … possession of some property which could be sold or given in security in order to sample writing, raise the money necessary for the journey.” I found this particularly interesting since in the Bohemian records I have located, several of my ancestors were indeed listed as “chalupnik”, or cottagers. Unfortunately, I shouldn#8217;t have been surprised. A member of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University, Professor Francis Dvornik, states in his book, Czech Contributions To The Growth of The United States , “The fact that, so far, no attempt has been made to present a synthetic picture of the Czech immigration into the United States, and at essays shopping evaluating Czech contributions to the growth of sample, their new country, in a language accessible to all Americans, induced me to publish this essay, in essays shopping the hope that someone else, more informed and better equipped, would one day complete it.” In the excellent reference book compiled by George J. Sample Of Report Letter. Kovtun, former Czech expert for the Library of Congress, Czech and Slovak History: An American Bibliography , you will find an Introductory Essay titled The Beginnings of American Scholarship on Czech and Slovak History written by Stanley B. Winters. In this enlightening essay, Mr. Williams points out that the essays made sarasota, first doctoral dissertation on Bohemian history was not written until 1914 at of report letter Harvard University by future professor Robert J. Kerner. The second would not appear until 1930 at to buy the University of Southern California, Berkley. Not until 1957 would there be the first dissertation on Moravia and the first on Slovakia not until 1961.

Author Winters also notes #8220;Since the beginning of the twentieth century, historians of the Slavs of Central and Eastern Europe have faced professional and intellectual problems that slowed the development of their field. He also adds praise for the pre-World War I writings of Emily Greene Balch and Thomas Capek. An excellent background book on letter, Czech immigration to the United States is Jan Habenicht#8217;s seminal work, History of Czechs In America and translated into English by to buy house london Miroslav Koudelka. By chapter, Jan recounts the sample writing letter, Bohemian immigrants in 47 of the 50 United States. An excellent resource, however I will make one note about the author here. It is widely acknowledged that Jan Habenicht allowed his prejudice for the Bohemian immigrants who stayed aligned with the Roman Catholic church to show in this work. As a result it is not balanced with an equal discussion or inclusion of those Bohemians who were Freethinkers, a group of slightly over half of the immigrants to the United States. Immigration began slowly and grew until the beginning of World War I. According to Eleanor E. Ledbetter, in her work The Czechs of Cleveland , there were only three Bohemian families in Cleveland in 1850, in 1860 only fifteen, and that by 1910 it was one of the buy essay taking control, largest Bohemian cities in the world, outnumbering even New York at that time, with an estimated population of some 50,000 first and second generation Bohemians.

Thank goodness for Ms. Ledbetter, the sample writing, Cleveland Librarian, who wrote this booklet! When you do serious research on the Cleveland Czech community, it is often the essays, only resource anyone can cite. I am glad it is here. Sample Of Report Writing. I am amazed that it is basically all there is.

According to Cesaire - Tim, Vaclav Snajdr, founder of sample letter, Dennice Noveveku, one of the early Cleveland Czech-language newspapers and president of the Pilsener Brewing Company, in The Bulletin of Western Reserve University , there were three distinct periods of Bohemian immigration. The first was in the 1850’s. For us as genealogists it is very interesting to house london, note that Mr. Snajdr points out that at this time the railroad did not connect Cleveland to sample of report letter, the East, so “These immigrants came to Cleveland via boat from Canada, Montreal and buy essay cheap control of our Quebec…” The second period of Bohemian immigration was from 1860 to 1866, the period of sample of report writing, time of the Austrian wars with Prussia and Italy, both fought mainly on Bohemian soil and which Mr. Snajdr points out ‘ruined many families’. The third period, and by far the to buy london, largest in terms of numbers of immigrants, was during the decade of 1870-1880. Leo Baca’s series of books, Czech Immigration Passenger Lists, can be a huge help for sample, Bohemian immigrants as these nine volumes include not only Ellis Island immigrants, but also those who entered the United States via Castle Garden, New Orleans, Galveston, and Philadelphia. As a Clevelander, it was also interesting for me to on Aime Cesaire Hanson …, read in The American City , that the City of Cleveland provided every immigrant who arrived on sample of report writing, Ellis Island and stated Cleveland was their destination, with a copy of “The Immigrant’s Guide to buy essay online cheap control of our, the City of Cleveland, Ohio”. This ‘neat booklet’ was the work of the city immigration officer at the time, R. E. Cole, and was written in Czech, English, German, Hungarian, Polish, Yiddish, Slovak, Croatian, and Italian. Some 35,000 of these were given out and sample of report letter contained advice and information on the city. Pollution Made. It is also important to note that across the seas in our #8216;homeland#8217;, the Czech Republic is now divided into seven regions for letter, their National Archives.

These facilities hold most of the pre-1900 Parish books, plus cadastral records, maps, architectural documents, court and administrative records, as well as early Census records. Some of these regional archives are coming online, certainly good news for us all. You can even ‘friend’ the Central Archive in Prague on Facebook! The regional archives are located in Prague, Trebon, Plzen, Litomerice, Zamrsk, Brno, and Opava for your reference. All have some records online now. ActaPublica : http://actapublica.eu This website, funded by the European Union’s European Regional Development Fund, holds the digitized records for three Regional Archives of Western (Plzen) and Central (Prague) Bohemia and buy essay cheap taking control of our Southern Moravian (Brno).

The site will load in of report Czech, but most browsers offers translation to English. Once you register, you can begin searching for those all-important parish records of births, marriages and deaths. Digital Archives State Regional Archives Trebon : http://digi.ceskearchivy.cz/DA?lang=en This site offers the digital images for the State Regional Archives Trebon and State District Archives of South Bohemia. Once again, registration is necessary, but then you are free to browse. New materials are being added to this site on essays, a weekly basis and one of the features of this site that I personally enjoy is that you can register for of report writing letter, email updates whenever new materials are added. Northern Bohemian Region Archives (Litomerice) : http://matriky.coalitomerice.cz/matriky_lite/ This site offers two nice features. One is a very useful PDF document entitled “How to use the database”, which I highly recommend reading prior to searching. The second is their alphabetical listings of locations and registries held here. Northern Moravian Region Archives (Opava) : http://www.archives.cz/zao/digitalni_archiv/index.html Again this site will load in Czech, but my browser translator does an adequate job for making this site navigable by non-Czech speakers, like me.

Eastern Bohemia Region Archives (Zamrsk): http://brandys-ve-svete.cz/soa/en/index.php This archive has roughly 20% of their records in digital form, but they are adding almost daily so check often. Due to the home village locations of my ancestors, I have a need to use the Digital Archives of the State Regional Archives of do my essay 90, Trebon 22 and I speak very highly of it. This site is fast accumulating all of the important documents for sample of report, genealogy from the Trebon district of the essay house, Czech Republic. The records that are online here are marvelous and one of the real treats of this archive is that you can sign up for regular email notices that come out whenever new documents are electronically created and made available on of report writing letter, this public site. Again, as genealogists, it is important for us to be aware that according to Joseph Slabey Roucek, of Penn State University, in papers online mix The American Journal of Sociology , it was not until 1882 that the United States Immigration Service began to recognize Bohemian as a distinct nationality. Remember this key date when you are searching records for sample of report, early Bohemian ancestors. They very well may be categorized incorrectly as German, Austrian, Slavic, or some other nationality.

In the early 1900’s, Clevelander and Bohemian nurse, Magdalena Kucera, wrote an online cheap taking of our fate article in Charities, A Weekly Review of Local and General Philanthropy . In her article, entitled “The Slavic Races In Cleveland”, Ms. Kucera states that there were some 40,000 Bohemians in Cleveland at that time and that “The Slavic races in Cleveland number one-fourth of the population”. Ms. Kucera also reports “They (Bohemians) are among the most intelligent and progressive of our immigrants. Of Report Writing. Nearly all of them have had a common school education and on Aime Cesaire Hanson their record as useful citizens is one to be proud of. They strive to own their own homes and many of them already possess comfortable, attractive houses. The Bohemians have representatives in nearly all the trades and professions, the younger generation, especially, turning to sample, law, medicine, and business. There are thirty doctors, twenty lawyers and many successful business men who have an established reputation for honesty and fair dealing.

In the department of education they are also doing their share. Several of the young women are school teachers, one being on the teaching staff in one of the high schools, another a member of the on internet shopping, Board of Examiners, a third, in the training school for teachers.” I found it of great interest to of report, note that in Thomas Capek’s book, The Cechs (Bohemians) in America A Study of Their National, Cultural, Political, Social, Economic and Religious Life , that Capek confirms the importance of Magdalena Kucera’s information in a footnote as follows: “More trustworthy data on the Cleveland community than Chotek’s story are contained in buy essay the narratives of ….. Magadalena Kucera”. Bruce M. Garver also points out in his chapter entitled “Czech-American Freethinkers on the Great Plains, 1871-1914”, in the book Ethnicity on the Great Plains , “Among all the nationalities that emigrated fromAustria-Hungary, they (Czechs) ranked highest in the percentage of skilled laborers and of report writing of literate adults – 98.5 percent …” Dr. Garver’s chapter title brings to on internet shopping, mind another of the aspects of the Bohemian immigrants that set them apart from their fellow immigrants, certainly was critical to my family, and is of importance to us as genealogists.

Bohemian immigrants were split, almost 50/50, between Freethinkers and those following a formal religion, usually Roman Catholic. Freethinkers were crucial in sample writing letter establishing many of the Sokols, Lodges, theater, drama, and musical groups, camps, and fraternal organizations. Jan Habenicht, a staunch Roman Catholic, notes early, again in his History of buy essay cheap control of our fate, Czechs in America , “Readers will probably be surprised that so much heed in of report writing letter this book was paid to the development of Czech Americans’ club life. It was necessary. The activities of Czech Americans concentrated heavily on the establishment of theatrical, singers’, Sokol, church, and fraternal organizations, and there is no denying that this kind of london, activity has been very broad and its results have probably been the sample of report letter, only effective expression of Czech life in America.” In the case of my family, both of my Knechtl and Vicha branches were staunch Freethinkers. Among other effects, this meant that for generations marriages were performed by Justices of the Peace and not in churches. To Buy House London. This also means materials such as Lodge membership rosters, books such as Joseph Martinek’s One Hundred Years of the CSA. The History of the Czechoslovak Society of America and the Czechoslovak Heritage Museum affiliated with the sample writing, CSA in Oak Brook,Illinois can be of significant help and importance. Again, on a personal note, when I have been searching for my Bohemian ancestors in online resources such as GenealogyBank.com (a subscription site), which has great coverage via their historic Plain Dealer archive, at the Western Reserve Historical Society Library, or the Cuyahoga County Archive, I often find family mentioned due to their various Freethinkers Lodge activity.

After many years of conducting my genealogy work, it continues to puzzle me as to why so little study has been done on the Bohemian immigrants to all of the Essay - Tim …, United States. I will say, with some hard digging, there can be some exquisite gems uncovered, such as Dr. Gregory M. Letter. Stone’s PhD dissertation, Ethnicity, Class, and Politics Among Czechs in Cleveland, 1870-1940 , (18) but sadly such gems are few and far between and pollution essays quite a challenge to find at times. I believe we certainly need more study of this important and significant community! The following are some excellent resources that as of this writing seem to only appear in print and not in digital form yet.

Some are a bit dated, however the hints, material, information, and data in them can be invaluable. Sample Of Report. Czechs and Slovaks in North America: A Bibliography, Esther Jerabek, Czechoslovak Society of Arts and pollution sarasota Sciences in America, Inc. New York, New York, 1976. Ethnicity, Class, and Politics Among Czechs in Cleveland, 1870-1940, Stone, Gregory Martin, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1993. The Czecho-Slovaks in America, Miller, Kenneth D., George H. Doran Company, New York, New York, 1922. One Hundred Years of the CSA: 1854-1954, Martinek, Joseph, Cicero-Berwyn Press, Berwyn, Illinois, 1985. Ethnicity on the Great Plains, Luebke, Frederick C., University of sample letter, Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1980. American Freeethought, 1860-1914, Warren, Sidney, Columbia University Press, New York, New York, 1943. Cechs and Bohemians in America, Capek, Thomas, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1920.

Genealogical Research for Czech and Slovak Americans, Miller, Olga K., Gale Research Company, Detroit, Michigan, 1978. Locating Your Immigrant Ancestors, Neagles, James C, and Lila Lee, Keith W. Essay To Buy House London. Watkins Sons, Providence, Utah, 1975. Our Slavic Fellow Citizens, Balch, Emily Greene, Charities Publications Committee, New York, New York, 1910. This outline by Shon Edwards is one of the very, very best resources available. It is one of the most important #8216;Go To#8217; documents on Bohemia and Czech genealogy you will find anywhere #8212; and I do mean anywhere! Shon is terrific and has amazing knowledge of this field.

The Archives of sample of report writing letter, Czechs and buy essay control Slovaks Abroad (ACASA) at sample letter the University of Chicago Regenstein Library is an exceptional resource for anyone studying Czech and essay london Slovak history. This archive covers the subject not only in Chicago, but beyond as well. One of the most impressive items in their collection is of report letter, that they have perhaps the Essay on Aime Cesaire - Tim Hanson …, only complete set (1875-1958) of the sample, Amerikan Narodni Kalendar! This is one of the few issues of Amerikan Narodni Kalendar that I have in my library. This series is of immense importance and the great news is that, as they can afford it, the do my essay, Archive is of report letter, digitally copying every issue. An ongoing index of most of the holdings can be found here and london here. These two lists are still works in progress, but are an excellent start to get an idea of the size of the holdings at ACASA.

Plus the Archives holds a list of more than 9,000 refugees from Czechoslovakia from Regensburg, Germany from January to August 1948. The National Czech and Slovak Museum and Library (NCSML), located in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, has significant holdings in a variety of areas of Czech and Slovak heritage. It houses the sample, largest collection of Czech and Slovak music outside of the Czech Republic. This from The Library of Congress (LC) website, which states that the LC is considered to cheap control, be the best repository of Czech and Slovak books, periodicals and other reading materials outside the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The monographs and bound periodicals relating to the culture of the Czechs and Slovaks amount to ca. 115,000 items, with the sample letter, yearly acquisitions of monographs averaging ca. Buy Research Papers Online The Media Mix. 1,500 over the last 10 years. The LC has about 2,000 Czech and Slovak periodicals, of which ca. 600 are currently received, and more than 170 Czech and Slovak newspapers, with 14 titles currently received. It is estimated that about 80 percent of all these materials are in Czech or Slovak, English being the predominant language of the rest.

While the Czech and Slovak collections in the LC are generally good, they are especially strong for books and periodicals published after 1945. This is of report letter, due to the fact that after 1945 monographs and online cheap the media mix periodicals published in Czechoslovakia (now the Czech and Slovak Republics) were purchased by LC on of report, the basis of essay to buy house, a blanket order. The period of the 1920s and 1930s (the era of the First Czechoslovak Republic) is also well represented. Some of the sample of report, holdings of works from this period have been acquired retrospectively, with stress being laid on volumes showing the excellent Czechoslovak craftsmanship in book design and essay printing. Another area of relative strength is of report writing, Czech and Slovak exile and Samizdat literature published during the Communist era.

Thomas Capek was a prolific writer and historian of house, Czech-Americans. This index is a very helpful guide to all that is held in the United States Library of Congress. These can be invaluable aids to sample of report writing letter, the serious Czech/Bohemian genealogy and history student. This paper, produced by online the media mix the United States Embassy in the Czech Republic and written by George Kovtun, Czech Area Specialist at the Library of Congress, holds a wealth of Czech-American information. It has a very lovely history, historic Czech-Americans with some biographies attached, and a great index of resources. This one is worth the click for sample of report writing, certain!

Czech and Slovak History: An American Bibliography. Pollution Made Sarasota. George J. Kovtun, the past Czech subject matter expert for The Library of Congress, has written extensively on Bohemian/Czech history, especially in regard to the U.S. and writing letter Czech areas of interaction. This bibliography (covering up to 1993) is especially useful as it focuses on those resources available in English. Author Kovtun segments this bibliography by timeframe, which makes searching a breeze as you work on to buy, your Bohemian genealogy questions. JewishGen : http://www.jewishgen.org This site, an affiliate of the Museum of Jewish Heritage, holds many excellent records and helpful hints. Whether or not your ancestors were of the Jewish faith, the ‘Town Finder’, under the letter, ‘Research’ tab, is the most useful tool I have found online for locating village names, especially those now gone. Shopping. There is a wonderful SIG (Special Interest Group) within the JewishGen site for sample of report letter, those of us who are interested in Czech genealogy at http://www.jewishgen.org/austriaczech.

This SIG has also prepared a useful PowerPoint presentation on essays on internet, Austrian and Czech Jewish Genealogy Research. Sample Of Report Letter. It can be found at http://www.jewishgen.org/austriaczech/SIG2013.ppt. For current maps of Czech Republic, my ‘go to’ site is http://mapy.cz. Sarasota. CSGI has some good information on this homepage and an excellent reference library onsite in St. Paul, Minnesota.

Helpful folks and worth the membership fee. AFOCR is a longtime organization that focuses on sample writing, strengthening ties between the control of our fate, Czech Republic and the United States. In early March 2013, they added a beginning Czech genealogy page to their site and of report writing letter are getting into essay to buy house london, more and more cultural and family history work. As they get more seasoned this could well become a worthwhile site and repository of interesting information. Illinois Bohemians and Czechs. Chicago was the destination for of report writing, the vast majority of buy essay cheap taking of our, Bohemians who immigrated to of report letter, Illinois. The Czech and Slovak American Genealogy Society of Illinois is your best first stop if you have Czech roots in essay the Land of Lincoln. If you have ancestors who settled in Kansas, a good place to begin your work is sample of report letter, with the Kansas Historical Society and their Czechs in to buy london Kansas page. Additionally, this site has a very helpful bibliography page titled #8220;Bohemians, Czechs, and Moravians to Kansas: A Bibliography#8220;. There are also a good number of local sites that address local Czech immigrants in sample letter Kansas.

I read that no state in the U.S. currently has a larger percentage of Czech-descendant citizens than Nebraska, so this site is well worth a visit if you have Czech ancestry in Nebraska. They have old issues of do my cheap, their magazine online, and the now sold-out issue from 1993 The Czech-American Experience is all here. There is some very interesting information and data here for anyone to read. This site is designed to be a #8220;community resource#8221; for anyone with an interest in the Czech legacy in Texas, which is a deep and old one. Sample Letter. One of their intersting undertakings is their Texas Czech Dialect Archive, which is focused on online taking control, docuementing the unique Czech dialect found in Texas. It is also focusing on becoming a hub of collaboration for all the Czech organizations across the state of Texas.

A relative newcomer being founded in 2003, but very active and of report writing successful group, the Virginia Czech/Slovak Heritage Society is undertaking some very exciting work on the Virginia Slavic immigrants (basically between 1885 and 1920). They have held a very successful first ever Folk Festival and have some outstanding goals focused on building a Czech #8216;virtual library#8217;, documenting the family genealogies of Virginia#8217;s Czechs and Slovaks, language preservation, and - Tim more. Since 1896 when its cornerstone was laid, Bohemian National Hall has been the epicenter of Czech life in Cleveland and this continues today with the work of this group. Of Report. One of the exciting efforts of Bohemian National Hall is their new work to catalog and index all of the pollution made, holding in their 100+ year old library. Sample Of Report Letter. This should be a wonderful for anyone with Czech roots in Essay Cesaire Hanson the Greater Cleveland area. While there is not a statewide Czech organization for Oklahoma, there are several active organizations that focus on Czech heritage in letter the Sooner State. First, there is an item on the Oklahoma Historical Society for Czech materials. There are also several local organizations that have Oklahoma Czech information such as the Essay Cesaire - Tim …, Canadian County Oklahoma Genealogical Society , which covers such key Czech communities as Yukon and sample of report writing others. Suggested Experts for additional assistance: If you need any translation services (over 50 languages) especially Czech, I can fully endorse Karel and his firm. He is very detail oriented and pays attention to deadlines and needs of the client.

An excellent translator as well! I have used Martin Pytr as an expert researcher in pollution essays made sarasota my Czech work and he has been excellent. Always prompt, always fairly priced, and of report writing letter provides what he promises #8212; and equally important does not over promise! Take a look at his site if you need a great researcher in essays the Czech Republic who focuses on Moravia. I have also used David Kohout in my research work in sample of report writing letter the Czech Republic and have been very pleased with his work as well. David is exceedingly thorough and detail oriented in his efforts. He grabs onto a project and doesn#8217;t let go until he and you are satisfied! You can check out David#8217;s site by clicking on his name above. If you have done much of any work on essay to buy house, your Bohemian/Czech genealogy you will most likely recognize the sample of report writing letter, name of Essay on Aime - Tim Hanson, Miroslav Koudelka.

Why? Well, Miro was selected to sample of report writing, translate Jan Habenicht#8217;s book #8220;Dejiny Cechuv Americkych#8221;, or #8220;History of buy research cheap, Czechs in America#8221;. Not much you can add to that credential, but there is more. Miro has written other books and is now a full time historian and sample writing genealogy researcher in the Czech Republic. Miro#8217;s vast knowledge of Czech history coupled with his passion for genealogy and family history makes him an invaluable researcher and buy essay online cheap taking of our a very special guide for the genealogy-oriented trip enthusiast in the Czech Republic. You can see my interview with Miro here! Rev.

Jan, as he likes to be called, is not only an excellent researcher, but a wonderful host and guide for genealogy trips in letter the Czech Republic. Take a look at Jan#8217;s site and enjoy! Olga lives in southern Bohemia and is an exceptional researcher. I especially appreciate the incredible attention to on internet shopping, detail she includes in her reports to her clients. She is sample of report letter, not only extraordinarily knowledgeable, but she has an essay to buy house london enviable network within the villages and sample writing communities of southern Bohemia.

You can find Olga#8217;s contact information by clicking on her name.

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How to of report letter Find Resumes on the Internet with Google. Want to learn how to find resumes on the Internet using Google? You’ve come to the right place! Whether you are new to searching the - Tim, Internet for of report writing letter resumes or you are a veteran Interent sourcer, I’ve included some tips, tricks, and essay house observations for the novice and expert alike. When using Google to search specifically for resumes, it’s a good idea to begin by searching for the word “resume” in the title and/or the sample of report letter, url of web pages. For example: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) Here is a sample result to illustrate how this works – we can see the word “Resume” in the blue TITLE line, as well as in the green URL line. The first line of any search result is the title of the Essay on Aime Cesaire Hanson, webpage, and the url is the specific web page’s address. Targeting the word “resume” in the title and/or url is very handy, because for many people, it’s simply common sense/instinct to either title the sample writing, web page containing their resume with the word “resume,” and/or save their resume using the word “resume” in to buy london the name of the sample of report, file. Eliminating False Positive Results. A “false positive” result is a search result that contains your search terms, but does not match the “essence” of what you are actually trying to find.

For example – if you’re searching for do my essay resumes, there are many sites that will be returned in your search results that are in fact not resumes, such as sites advertising resume samples and job postings that mention phrases such as, “submit resumes to…” In order to remove most non-resume false positive results, you can use Google’s version of the Boolean NOT operator, which is the minus sign, to prevent your search from returning results with words such as sample, job, etc. (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples. Other ideas of terms you can try to sample writing eliminate that may return false positive results: -eoe -submit -free -”resume service” -template -”resume service” -“resume writers” -“resume writing” Some people who decide to make their resume available on london the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. To find these folks, you can try and sample of report writing letter include local area codes in the media mix your search in attempt to find them. Here is an example of sample of report letter, a search using area codes to target people who live in Northern VA: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -“resume service” (703 OR 571)

What you’ll notice, however, is that searching for Cesaire Hanson area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in the screenshot below – which are the first 4 results from the search. Result #3 and letter #4 mention the Essay on Aime Cesaire Hanson …, number 571, but it’s not referenced as an of report area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of resumes of essays made, people who live in VA, you can add the writing letter, state and Cesaire - Tim … state abbreviation to the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and phrases: While there are still a good number of non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didn’t even search for any keywords/skills. Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in of report writing false positives.

Another way to search for essays sarasota local resumes is to target a zip code radius. While Google doesn’t support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the fact that Google supports searching for of report numbers within a range, otherwise known as “numrange” search. Made. You can perform a numrange search on any sequential (low to high) set of numbers by typing two periods between the numbers without any spaces. This is writing letter especially helpful because we can exploit this search functionality and cheap 90 adapt it to performing a zip code radius search. For example, take your target zip code and sample letter use this handy zip code radius lookup application, which you can use to search for zip codes in a radius and sort the zip codes within the radius from low to buy essay cheap taking control high. Using a central zip code of 75201 in sample writing letter Dallas, TX and Essay Cesaire - Tim Hanson targeting a 20 mile radius, we can use that zip code radius application to of report get a range of zip codes from a low zip code of buy research papers online cheap mix, 75001 to a high zip code of of report writing, 76155. Using Google’s numrange search syntax, here is an example of a search string targeting people within a 20-mile radius of 75201 in Essay Cesaire Hanson TX:

Sample results: you can see the sample of report writing, zip code search worked beautifully: Here are a couple of buy research papers online cheap the media mix, things to keep in writing letter mind when searching for local resumes: Not everyone will publish a phone number on online cheap of our their resume If they do publish a phone number on their resume, it could be a cell phone with a non-local area code if they relocated from sample of report writing letter another area – this is why is can be helpful to search for zip codes as well as area codes If they don’t publish a phone number at on internet all, they should at least mention a city and/or state. Targeting Resumes That Are Not Titled As “Resume” Although plenty of people do title their resume or the web page containing their resume with the word “resume,” there are some people who don’t. After searching for all of the results that DO contain the word “resume” in the URL or title of the sample of report writing, web page, you need to try to essays made sarasota eliminate them from future search results using Google’s NOT operator, the minus sign, to specifically target the results that don’t mention resume in the title or URL. For example: Don’t be tempted to try and write that as -(inurl:resume OR intitle:resume), because Google will not read that search string in the manner in which you intend. Instead of sample letter, eliminating results with the word “resume” in either the on Aime - Tim Hanson, URL or the title, Google will in fact will do the exact opposite. Click here to see the of report letter, sad reality. Sorry Google.

Next, you’ll have to think about words that are commonly found on resumes, such as “objective,” “summary,” “experience,” “employment,” “skills,” “history,” “education,” etc. Then you’ll have to try and reduce false positive results of job postings, resume sample sites and such, and also target local results. Putting it all together, your search string could look like this: First page results: We can see that the first result is essentially of a resume, yet the buy essay online taking, person saved their work history as “biodata.” See? Some people don’t use the word resume. :-) Looking at the second result, we can see that the word “resume” is actually highlighted in the url of the second result – which technically should not happen, as we coupled Google’s NOT/- operator with inurl:resume. Yet more proof that Boolean search does not = Internet search.

That’s 2 strikes, Google. The third result is definitely not a resume – it is sample a LinkedIn directory by name, within which is at least one positive hit on our search terms. While there are no doubt resumes on the Internet that do not mention the word “resume,” anywhere within them, I have found that when you stray from targeting the word “resume” in essay 90 web page titles and of report letter URLs, you can quickly find yourself swimming in a sea of false positive results, which is a huge time drain. I believe the 80/20 Pareto principle solidly applies here: You will get 80% of your viable results from targeted resume searches and buy essay control the other 20% from sample writing letter searching without targeting the word “resume.” Likewise, you can easily waste 80% of your time trying to sort through the online the media mix, sea of false positives in order to sample of report writing dig up the 20% of resumes that do not mention the term. I’ve provided you with a quick overview of essays shopping, how to effectively utilize Google to search for resumes on the Internet. Be aware though – all is not perfect in when hunting for resumes in Google land – if you have not already, please read these 2 posts: The Internet has Free Resumes – So What?and Boolean search does not = Internet search. For those of you who read this post and asked why I:

didn’t talk about searching for CV’s didn’t suggest using the tilde. operator in conjuntion with the sample, word “resume” didn’t use - job when trying to eliminate false positive results didn’t talk about targeting filetypes didn’t talk about just searching for Hanson the word “resume” without using it in conjunction with inurl: or intitle: didn’t mention Google CSE’s. Excellent Article! Real insight seen in the description and of report letter also hands on expertise. Buy Essay Cheap Control Fate. I believe this way you could simply recruit using an internet connection and nothing else. This is very impressive. Also you will be able to sample writing letter get better candidature as opposed to people using job boards.

Thanks Glen! This really was a value addition to my efforts! I have tried the search as ‘site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume (objective OR summary) (experience OR history) education -job -jobs -sample -samples’ which you have mentioned. Shopping. But I didn’t get any result from writing letter linkedin site. If I modify the search keyword as ‘site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume -job -jobs’ then I got result from linkedin site but it displays events also along with candidates. I found this article very interesting and appealing as I have been trying to learn ways to do sourcing for resumes on the internet. I am trying to learn ways to form such a string on either google or any other tool/site. I am new to this and can hardly understand all the requirements.Could you be kind enough to post an article for essay cheap the same? I have already subscribed on this site.

Thanks a lot for sample writing letter your article, i have heard about resume search in google but i dont know how to do it. After reading your article i have got an idea to do it.. i will try. please post me the articles related to this search and job search in US. i do appriciate your help… Thank you so much. Hey, thanks a lot for all the information you are sharing with. Pollution Essays Made. Its real cool. How ever I would like to know more about sourcing the resume. Please help me out. I’m really great full about this article.

I’m currently new in the field of Human Resource. Of Report Writing Letter. And I’m currently using an online subscription based resume search. But unfortunately, it’s not enough to buy research papers cheap fullfill my search. I’m currently looking for a faster and accurate resume search. Excellent article, with a ton of great search refining information. I have what seems like a dumb question that I must ask. Of Report. I am searching Google for buy essay cheap fate Android engineers and have used the following string: android engineer OR Mobile Programmer resume filetype:pdf -guide -events -hire -amazon -job -jobs -manual.

I have returned ok results… Here is my question, how do I eliminate European countries and Canada from my results? I look forward to your reply. Thanks again. Internet Resume Search 2.0 does all the internet search work for you using the major search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing at: http://www.intelligentsearchagents.com/internet-resume-search.php. Thank you so much for this article.

Can you send me few tips with example to my personal gmail id gonanagesh@gmail.com. Great article! Thank you for sample letter sharing this knowledge. It’s going to be very useful for my searches. I do have one question though, how do I narrow a search for a SEO expert who needs to have worked on Essay on Aime Cesaire - Tim Hanson … one of the top Alexa 100 sites?

Basically, how do I add criteria to my search? how to type the keywords for the need requirment……… Designing was passion so got it worked for, have a look on the new trends of Designers. Hi Glen; I tried your string on Google and indeed was very helpful i getting resumes in USA, but i mostly work on European requirements, can you please advise how to source if i am looking out for profiles in multiple countries in of report writing Europe with Bilingual language option. Thanks. Very informative, that’s exactly what i am looking for.

Specially in finding that quality resume which sometimes tends to be not so inviting after all,. Essay To Buy. You got a good theme but sometimes fail in editing, that’s sometimes the sickness of sample of report writing, a resume. You’re right. And, are you kiddin’me, i’ve been looking that information for weeks. Cesaire Hanson …. Great Post plus i like the website’s layout.

I’m going to bookmark this up for sample of report the reliable information that i think i’m gonna be needing sooner or later. Awesome! I was looking for Boolean for zipcode and radius and Essay Cesaire - Tim … got here exactly what I was looking for plus lot of additional new stuff..Excellent way of sample of report writing letter, putting the concept and explaination..Thanks for the article! I am looking for guides on recruitment sales techniques such as how to close a candidate or a manager… does anyone can help? Thanks a lot in advance for your help! I learnt a lot from this article…..thanks a lot…… Finding the resume is easy but finding the good resumes with all the contents is very difficult!! Need job send your resume to resumes@reclutaconsultant, For what type of Position and Company?

there is an buy essay of our fate advanced search in sample of report google homepage…u can search for resumes from there in different formats and techniques…try them till u find the do my essay 90, right one. thanks. Thank you so much for writing this article! It is by far the most useful and easy to understand introduction to Boolean I have found. I have a bit of a tailored question for you, what is sample of report writing your success in using Boolean to find data scientists? I’ve been having a hard time finding them and was wondering if I was doing something wrong or if they just don’t tend to post their resumes online.

I would greatly appreciate any insights you have to Cesaire Hanson … offer! (I didn’t see an sample of report writing article about this in your blog but sorry in advance if it is in essays on internet there and I missed it.) can u please mention the strings to search resumese with complete details. oh i need to fix my problem in various ways, how could help me in this situation … Cathey is letter a sourcing and recruiting thought leader with over 16 years. of experience working in large staffing agency and global RPO. environments (1,000 recruiters and nearly 100,000 hires annually). Starting out his career as a top producing recruiter, he quickly. advanced into senior management roles and buy research online cheap the media now currently serves as the. SVP of Strategic Talent Acquisition and Innovation for Kforce, working. out of their renowned National Recruiting Center with over 300. recruiters.

Often requested to speak on sample writing letter sourcing and recruiting best. practices, trends and strategies, Glen has traveled internationally to. present at many talent acquisition conferences (5X LinkedIn Talent. Connect – U.S. ’10, ’11, ’12, Toronto ’12, London ’12, 2X Australasian. Talent Conference – Sydney Melbourne ’11, ’12, 6X SourceCon, 2X. TruLondon, 2X HCI) and is regularly requested to present to essays companies. (e.g., PwC, Deloitte, Intel, Booz Allen Hamilton, Citigroup, etc.). This.

blog is sample his personal passion and does not represent the on Aime Cesaire …, views or. opinions of anyone other than himself. – See more at: Good afternoon, this seems very interesting. I am a recruiter and sample of report writing trying to search for a position within a certain area – how do I do this? Maria Gomez.

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36 household chores men don't bother to of report writing, do. 6:00AM BST 06 Oct 2014. Women do twice as much housework as men even when they have done a full day in the office, according to new research. Putting the cheap the media bins out, DIY and changing lightbulbs are the sample writing only three household tasks for which men take primary responsibility. By contrast, 36 other chores #x2013; including vacuuming, cleaning the bathroom, washing and ironing #x2013; are done by women all or most of the time. The findings come from a survey by Mumsnet, which questioned nearly 1,000 working mothers on buy research online cheap the media the division of labour in their home. It found that women spend an sample letter average 10 hours per week on household tasks, while men spend only five. Only five per cent of men take responsibility for giving the house a weekly clean, compared to 71 per cent of women.

In the remaining households, the task is shared equally. Women are also chiefly responsible for managing their children#x2019;s lives, such as organising birthday parties, buying clothes and packing schoolbags. When it comes to Christmas, 81% said they were responsible for making arrangements all or most of the time. Only one per cent said they partner was in charge, while 20 per cent said the burden was shared equally. Yet two-thirds of women surveyed said they did not want their partner to do more, either because they were comfortable with the Cesaire - Tim balance or because they believed men would not perform tasks #x201c;to the sample letter requisite standards#x201d;. Essays Made? Mumsnet survey: household tasks for letter, which women are chiefly responsible. 4 Cleaning kitchen/bathroom. 5 Heavy duty kitchen cleaning (oven/fridge) 7 Washing clothes. 8 Washing bedding. Pollution Essays Sarasota? 9 Changing sheets.

11 Managing the family budget. 12 Organising car insurance. Sample Letter? 13 Organising home insurance. 14 Organising payment of utility bills. 15 Liaising with school/nursery over everyday issues. 16 Liaising with school/nursery over trips. 17 Being the first person called if there's a problem at school/nursery. 18 Packing schoolbags.

19 Doing/supervising homework. 20 Arranging childcare. 21 Arranging applications for primary/secondary school. 22 Arranging play dates. 23 Taking children to clubs. 24 Organising birthday parties. 25 Buying clothes. 26 Organising Christmas. 27 Buying family presents/cards. 28 Managing doctor/dentist/optician appointments.

29 Looking after children at evenings and weekends. 30 Preparing activities for your patner to look after the children at evenings and weekends. 31 Reading bedtime stories. 32 Looking after poorly children. 33 Taking time off work to Hanson, look after poorly children. Writing? 34 Settling children that wake in the night. 35 Organising birthday presents for family members. 36 Booking holidays. Justine Roberts, chief executive of Mumsnet, said: #x201c;One in pollution made, three working mums is the main family wage earner, a rise of one million over the last 18 years. #x201c;Despite this, women are still busting a gut back home, responsible for the vast majority of chores and domestic responsibilities. Sample Of Report Letter? It#x2019;s not surprising we still talk about glass ceilings and the lack of women at on Aime - Tim Hanson the top. #x201c;Most of us are just too exhausted to climb the greasy pole.#x201d; A separate survey by BBC Radio 4#x2019;s Woman#x2019;s Hour #x2013; which questioned 1,001 men and of report women #x2013; produced similar findings, with women estimating they spend 11.5 hours a week on - Tim … housework compared to only six hours a week for men.

It found that two-thirds of respondents aged 18-34 said they argued with their partner over of report writing letter chores, but only one in three people aged 65 and over on internet found housework to be a source of contention. Sources of argument include differing standards of cleanliness, division of labour and the cost of a cleaner. Writing Letter? Jane Garvey, the Woman#x2019;s Hour presenter said equality of the sexes only went so far. Do My Cheap? #x201c;Times have changed. Women are no longer trapped in sample letter, the home. They can go out to work then come back and start the housework,#x201d; she said. The programme is Essay on Aime, launching an online #x2018;Chore Wars#x2019; calculator enabling couples to settle who does most around the house. French feminists hijack Paris street signs. 'Ghosted' by my ex: I never heard from him again.

Fainting isn't feeble - our reluctance to help is. Sample Writing Letter? Inside Yarl's Wood: We fled the UK only to be locked up. Cheap Mix? Black feminism is sadly still necessary. Read more from Women. The Big Short hits UK cinemas: these are the best films about sample, business. The Big Short, the film adaptation of Michael Lewis' book of the same name about the causes of the financial crisis, opens in UK cinemas this weekend. How will the story stack up against the greatest films about business?

Martin Chilton looks at quotes about cheap 90, matrimony from Socrates to Sinatra. 80 great quotes about love and romance. In Pictures - the story of sample, love and romance: from Adam and Eve to Tinder and Cesaire - Tim … Chemsex. Compiled by Martin Chilton. As 2016's headliners are confirmed, here are Glastonbury Festival's greatest ever acts. 'If I was a lady tennis player I'd go down on my knees to give thanks for Nadal and Federer' Indian Wells CEO Raymond Moore makes controversial comments, as Novak Djokovic defends gendererd prize money discrepancy. Gemma Arterton says she is no fan of 'stampy and shouty' feminism.

Actress, who is currently starring on stage as Nell Gwynn, says the production gets the sample of report letter message across in on internet, a more subtle way. Sample Of Report Writing? Charlotte Church: I regret defending Kim Kardashian over house london naked selfie - she is a t*** Church described the reality star as 'unempathetic, self serving, and probably quite bad for women' If Kim Kardashian’s naked selfie makes her a feminist, Zoo magazine was The Female Eunuch. As the reality TV star argues that her nude photo empowers women, perhaps we can finally appreciate the radical feminist message of lads’ mags. EU referendum: From Boadicea to Mrs Pankhurst. meet the posthumous backers of Brexit. SKETCH: On International Women’s Day, an all-female Brexit campaign is launched and quickly attracts support from the young, the old, and the dead. Of Report Writing? The most intrepid women of all time. Essay Hanson …? To mark International Women's Day, we look at the adventurous females who have travelled beyond the ordinary. Large rat climbs on sleeping commuter. Teen pepper-sprayed at Trump rally. Sample Of Report Writing? Disabled great-grandfather denied stairlift and forced to crawl. Elderly wombat rescued after being attacked.

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cooling system essay Folks who do systems analysis have a great belief in “leverage points.” These are places within a complex system (a corporation, an economy, a living body, a city, an ecosystem) where a small shift in one thing can produce big changes in everything. This idea is sample of report writing letter not unique to systems analysis — it’s embedded in legend. The silver bullet, the trimtab, the miracle cure, the secret passage, the magic password, the single hero who turns the tide of essays, history. The nearly effortless way to sample of report letter, cut through or leap over huge obstacles. We not only want to essay london, believe that there are leverage points, we want to know where they are and how to sample, get our hands on them. Leverage points are points of power. The systems analysis community has a lot of cheap control, lore about leverage points. Sample Writing! Those of online cheap of our fate, us who were trained by sample of report the great Jay Forrester at MIT have all absorbed one of his favorite stories. Cesaire Hanson …! “People know intuitively where leverage points are,” he says. “Time after time I’ve done an analysis of a company, and I’ve figured out a leverage point — in inventory policy, maybe, or in the relationship between sales force and of report letter productive force, or in personnel policy. Then I’ve gone to the company and discovered that there’s already a lot of attention to that point. Everyone is trying very hard to push it IN THE WRONG DIRECTION!”

The classic example of that backward intuition was my own introduction to systems analysis, the world model. Asked by the Club of Rome to essay cheap 90, show how major global problems — poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, resource depletion, urban deterioration, unemployment — are related and how they might be solved, Forrester made a computer model and came out with a clear leverage point 1 : Growth. Not only population growth, but economic growth. Growth has costs as well as benefits, and we typically don’t count the costs — among which are poverty and sample of report letter hunger, environmental destruction, etc. — the whole list of problems we are trying to papers, solve with growth! What is needed is much slower growth, much different kinds of sample of report writing letter, growth, and in on Aime Cesaire, some cases no growth or negative growth. The world’s leaders are correctly fixated on sample economic growth as the answer to virtually all problems, but they’re pushing with all their might in the wrong direction. Another of Forrester’s classics was his urban dynamics study, published in 1969, which demonstrated that subsidized low-income housing is a leverage point. Cheap Control Of Our! 2 The less of writing letter, it there is, the better off the essay, city is — even the low-income folks in letter, the city. This model came out at a time when national policy dictated massive low-income housing projects, and Forrester was derided. Now those projects are being torn down in city after city. Counterintuitive.

That’s Forrester’s word to describe complex systems. Leverage points are not intuitive. Or if they are, we intuitively use them backward, systematically worsening whatever problems we are trying to solve. The systems analysts I know have come up with no quick or easy formulas for finding leverage points. Do My Essay 90! When we study a system, we usually learn where leverage points are. But a new system we’ve never encountered? Well, our counterintuitions aren’t that well developed.

Give us a few months or years and we’ll figure it out. And we know from bitter experience that, because of sample, counterintuitiveness, when we do discover the system’s leverage points, hardly anybody will believe us. Very frustrating, especially for those of us who yearn not just to understand complex systems, but to make the Essay - Tim Hanson, world work better. So one day I was sitting in a meeting about how to make the writing, world work better — actually it was a meeting about how the new global trade regime, NAFTA and GATT and the World Trade Organization, is likely to make the world work worse. The more I listened, the more I began to simmer inside. “This is a HUGE NEW SYSTEM people are inventing!” I said to myself. Cheap Fate! “They haven’t the SLIGHTEST IDEA how this complex structure will behave,” myself said back to me. “It’s almost certainly an example of cranking the system in the wrong direction — it’s aimed at growth, growth at any price!! And the control measures these nice, liberal folks are talking about to combat it — small parameter adjustments, weak negative feedback loops — are PUNY. ” Suddenly, without quite knowing what was happening, I got up, marched to sample of report writing letter, the flip chart, tossed over to a clean page, and wrote: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 9. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). 8. Regulating negative feedback loops. 7. Driving positive feedback loops.

6. Material flows and nodes of material intersection. 5. Information flows. 4. The rules of the essays on internet shopping, system (incentives, punishments, constraints). 3. The distribution of power over the rules of the system. 2. The goals of the system. 1. The mindset or paradigm out of which the letter, system — its goals, power structure, rules, its culture — arises.

Everyone in buy essay online cheap fate, the meeting blinked in surprise, including me. Writing! “That’s brilliant!” someone breathed. “Huh?” said someone else. I realized that I had a lot of explaining to do. I also had a lot of thinking to do. As with most of the stuff that come to me in boil-over mode, this list was not exactly tightly reasoned. As I began to share it with others, especially systems analysts who had their own lists and buy essay taking control of our fate activists who wanted to put the list to immediate use, questions and comments came back that caused me to rethink, add and delete items, change the order, add caveats. In a minute I’ll go through the list I ended up with, explain the jargon, give examples and exceptions.

The reason for this introduction is to place the list in a context of humility and to leave room for evolution. What bubbled up in me that day was distilled from decades of rigorous analysis of of report letter, many different kinds of systems done by many smart people. But complex systems are, well, complex. It’s dangerous to generalize about them. Essay London! What you are about to writing, read is a work in essay, progress. It’s not a recipe for finding leverage points.

Rather it’s an invitation to think more broadly about system change. Here, in of report writing, the light of online taking control, a cooler dawn, is sample letter a revised list: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 12. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards). 11. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. 10. The structure of material stocks and flows (such as transport networks, population age structures). 9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system change. 8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. 7. Buy Essay Cheap Taking Of Our Fate! The gain around driving positive feedback loops.

6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information). 5. The rules of the system (such as incentives, punishments, constraints). 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. 3. The goals of the system. 2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. 1. The power to transcend paradigms. To explain parameters, stocks, delays, flows, feedback, and so forth, I need to start with a basic diagram.

The “state of the system” is whatever standing stock is of importance — amount of water behind the dam, amount of harvestable wood in the forest, number of people in the population, amount of money in the bank, whatever. System states are usually physical stocks, but they could be nonmaterial ones as well — self-confidence, degree of trust in public officials, perceived safety of a neighborhood. There are usually inflows that increase the stock and outflows that decrease it. Deposits increase the money in the bank; withdrawals decrease it. River inflow and rain raise the water behind the of report, dam; evaporation and discharge through the spillway lower it. Births and immigrations increase the population, deaths and Essay on Aime Hanson emigrations reduce it. Political corruption decreases trust in sample of report letter, public officials; experience of a well-functioning government increases it. Insofar as this part of the system consists of physical stocks and flows — and they are the on Aime - Tim Hanson, bedrock of any system — it obeys laws of conservation and accumulation. You can understand its dynamics readily, if you can understand a bathtub with some water in of report letter, it (the state of the system) and an inflowing faucet and outflowing drain. If the inflow rate is essays on internet higher than the outflow rate, the stock gradually rises. If the outflow rate is higher than the of report writing, inflow, the stock gradually goes down.

The sluggish response of the water level to what could be sudden twists in the input and output valves is typical — it takes time for flows to accumulate, just as it takes time for water to fill up or drain out of the tub. The rest of the diagram is the information that causes the flows to change, which then cause the stock to change. Essay Cesaire - Tim …! If you’re about to take a bath, you have a desired water level in mind. You plug the drain, turn on the faucet and letter watch until the water rises to your chosen level (until the discrepancy between the desired and the actual state of the to buy house, system is zero). Then you turn the water off. If you start to get in the bath and of report discover that you’ve underestimated your volume and are about to produce an overflow, you can open the drain for awhile, until the water goes down to your desired level. Those are two negative feedback loops, or correcting loops, one controlling the inflow, one controlling the outflow, either or both of which you can use to bring the water level to your goal. Notice that the goal and do my 90 the feedback connections are not visible in the system. If you were an extraterrestrial trying to figure out sample writing letter why the tub fills and empties, it would take awhile to pollution, figure out that there’s an sample of report invisible goal and a discrepancy-measuring process going on in the head of the do my essay cheap, creature manipulating the faucets.

But if you watched long enough, you could figure that out. Very simple so far. Now let’s take into account that you have two taps, a hot and sample writing letter a cold, and that you’re also adjusting for another system state — temperature. On Aime! Suppose the hot inflow is connected to a boiler way down in the basement, four floors below, so it doesn’t respond quickly. Sample Of Report Writing! And you’re making faces at yourself in the mirror and not paying close attention to essays, the water level. And, of course, the inflow pipe is connected to a reservoir somewhere, which is connected to the whole planetary hydrological cycle. The system begins to sample of report writing letter, get complex, and realistic, and essays sarasota interesting.

Mentally change the letter, bathtub into your checking account. Write checks, make deposits, add a faucet that keeps dribbling in Essay on Aime Cesaire - Tim Hanson …, a little interest and a special drain that sucks your balance even drier if it ever goes dry. Attach your account to a thousand others and sample of report writing letter let the bank create loans as a function of essay cheap 90, your combined and fluctuating deposits, link a thousand of those banks into a federal reserve system — and you begin to see how simple stocks and flows, plumbed together, make up systems way too complex to figure out. That’s why leverage points are not intuitive. Of Report Writing Letter! And that’s enough systems theory to proceed to pollution made, the list. 12. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). “Parameters” in systems jargon means the numbers that determine how much of a discrepancy turns which faucet how fast. Maybe the faucet turns hard, so it takes awhile to get the water flowing or to turn it off. Sample Letter! Maybe the drain is blocked and can allow only a small flow, no matter how open it is.

Maybe the faucet can deliver with the force of a fire hose. These considerations are a matter of numbers, some of essay to buy, which are physically locked in and unchangeable, but most of which are popular intervention points. Consider the national debt. Sample Letter! It’s a negative bathtub, a money hole. Essay On Aime Cesaire - Tim! The rate at which it sinks is called the annual deficit. Tax income makes it rise, government expenditures make it fall. Of Report Writing! Congress and the president spend most of taking, their time arguing about the many, many parameters that open and close tax faucets and spending drains. Since those faucets and drains are connected to us, the voters, these are politically charged parameters. But, despite all the fireworks, and no matter which party is in charge, the money hole has been sinking for years now, just at different rates. To adjust the dirtiness of the air we breathe, the government sets parameters called ambient air quality standards.

To assure some standing stock of forest (or some flow of money to logging companies) it sets allowed annual cuts. Corporations adjust parameters such as wage rates and product prices, with an eye on the level in their profit bathtub — the bottom line. The amount of land we set aside for conservation. The minimum wage. How much we spend on AIDS research or Stealth bombers. The service charge the bank extracts from writing letter, your account. All these are parameters, adjustments to faucets. So, by the way, is firing people and getting new ones, including politicians. Putting different hands on the faucets may change the rate at which the faucets turn, but if they’re the same old faucets, plumbed into the same old system, turned according to the same old information and online taking control goals and rules, the writing, system isn’t going to change much. Electing Bill Clinton was definitely different from electing George Bush, but not all that different, given that every president is plugged into the same political system. (Changing the on internet, way money flows in that system would make much more of of report, a difference — but I’m getting ahead of myself on this list.) Parameters are dead last on my list of powerful interventions.

Diddling with the details, arranging the deck chairs on the Titanic. Probably 90, no 95, no 99 percent of essay house, our attention goes to writing, parameters, but there’s not a lot of leverage in essays on internet shopping, them. Not that parameters aren’t important — they can be, especially in the short term and to the individual who’s standing directly in sample letter, the flow. People care deeply about parameters and fight fierce battles over cheap taking fate, them. Of Report Writing! But they RARELY CHANGE BEHAVIOR. If the system is chronically stagnant, parameter changes rarely kick-start it. Pollution! If it’s wildly variable, they don’t usually stabilize it.

If it’s growing out of control, they don’t brake it. Whatever cap we put on sample writing letter campaign contributions, it doesn’t clean up politics. The Feds fiddling with the interest rate haven’t made business cycles go away. (We always forget that during upturns, and are shocked, shocked by the downturns.) After decades of the Essay Cesaire Hanson, strictest air pollution standards in the world, Los Angeles air is less dirty, but it isn’t clean. Spending more on police doesn’t make crime go away. Since I’m about to get into some examples where parameters ARE leverage points, let me stick in a big caveat here. Parameters become leverage points when they go into sample, ranges that kick off one of the items higher on this list. Interest rates, for example, or birth rates, control the pollution essays made, gains around positive feedback loops. System goals are parameters that can make big differences. Of Report Letter! Sometimes a system gets onto a chaotic edge, where the on Aime Cesaire - Tim Hanson …, tiniest change in a number can drive it from order to of report writing letter, what appears to be wild disorder. These critical numbers are not nearly as common as people seem to think they are.

Most systems have evolved or are designed to stay far out of critical parameter ranges. Mostly, the numbers are not worth the sweat put into them. Here’s a story a friend sent me over the Internet to makes that point: 3. When I became a landlord, I spent a lot of time and energy trying to figure out what would be a “fair” rent to charge. I tried to pollution essays made sarasota, consider all the variables, including the relative incomes of my tenants, my own income and cash flow needs, which expenses were for upkeep and which were capital expenses, the equity versus the interest portion of the sample writing letter, mortgage payments, how much my labor on the house was worth, etc. I got absolutely nowhere. Finally I went to someone who specializes in giving money advice. She said: “You’re acting as though there is a fine line at which the rent is fair, and at any point above that point the tenant is being screwed and at any point below that you are being screwed. In fact there is a large grey area in which both you and the tenant are getting a good, or at least a fair, deal. Stop worrying and get on essay 90 with your life.”

11. The sizes of letter, buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. Consider a huge bathtub with slow in and outflows. Now think about a small one with very fast flows. That’s the difference between a lake and a river. You hear about catastrophic river floods much more often than catastrophic lake floods, because stocks that are big, relative to their flows, are more stable than small ones. In chemistry and other fields, a big, stabilizing stock is known as a buffer. The stabilizing power of buffers is why you keep money in the bank rather than living from the flow of change through your pocket. It’s why stores hold inventory instead of calling for new stock just as customers carry the buy essay online cheap taking of our fate, old stock out the door. It’s why we need to maintain more than the minimum breeding population of an writing letter endangered species.

Soils in the eastern U.S. are more sensitive to acid rain than soils in the west, because they haven’t got big buffers of calcium to neutralize acid. You can often stabilize a system by increasing the capacity of a buffer. 4 But if a buffer is too big, the system gets inflexible. It reacts too slowly. And big buffers of some sorts, such as water reservoirs or inventories, cost a lot to build or maintain. Businesses invented just-in-time inventories, because occasional vulnerability to fluctuations or screw-ups is cheaper (for them, anyway) than certain, constant inventory costs — and because small-to-vanishing inventories allow more flexible response to shifting demand. There’s leverage, sometimes magical, in changing the size of buy research papers cheap the media mix, buffers.

But buffers are usually physical entities, not easy to change. The acid absorption capacity of eastern soils is not a leverage point for alleviating acid rain damage. The storage capacity of a dam is literally cast in concrete. So I haven’t put buffers very high on the list of leverage points. 10. The structure of material stocks and writing flows and nodes of intersection (such as transport networks, population age structures, flow of nitrogen through soil). The plumbing structure, the essay to buy london, stocks and flows and their physical arrangement, can have an enormous effect on how the system operates.

When the Hungarian road system was laid out sample of report writing letter so all traffic from one side of the pollution, nation to the other has to pass through central Budapest, that determined a lot about air pollution and commuting delays that are not easily fixed by pollution control devices, traffic lights, or speed limits. The only way to of report, fix a system that is laid out wrong is to rebuild it, if you can. Amory Lovins does wonders of energy conservation by straightening out bent pipes and enlarging too-small ones. If we let him do energy retrofits on buy research papers online cheap the media all the buildings of the nation,we could shut down at least half of our electric power plants. But often physical rebuilding is the slowest and most expensive kind of change to sample of report letter, make in a system. Control Of Our Fate! Some stock-and-flow structures are just plain unchangeable. The baby-boom swell in the U.S. population first caused pressure on the elementary school system, then high schools, then colleges, then jobs and sample of report writing letter housing, and now we’re looking forward to supporting its retirement. Control Of Our! Not much we can do about it, because five-year-olds become six-year-olds, and sixty-four-year-olds become sixty-five-year-olds predictably and unstoppably. The same can be said for the lifetime of sample writing, destructive CFC molecules in the ozone layer, for the rate at which contaminants get washed out of aquifers, for the fact that an inefficient car fleet takes 10-20 years to turn over. Physical structure is online control crucial in a system, but rarely a leverage point, because changing it is rarely quick or simple.

The leverage point is in sample, proper design in buy essay of our fate, the first place. Sample Writing! After the structure is built, the leverage is in understanding its limitations and bottlenecks, using it with maximum efficiency, and refraining from fluctuations or expansions that strain its capacity. 9. On Aime - Tim Hanson! The lengths of sample writing, delays, relative to the rate of system changes. Remember that bathtub on the fourth floor I mentioned, with the water heater in on Aime - Tim …, the basement? I actually experienced one of of report, those once, in an old hotel in London. It wasn’t even a bathtub, it was a shower — no buffering capacity.

The water temperature took at least a minute to respond to my faucet twists. Buy Research! Guess what my shower was like. Right, oscillations from sample of report letter, hot to cold and essay to buy london back to sample letter, hot, punctuated with expletives. Delays in feedback loops are critical determinants of system behavior. They are common causes of oscillations. Essay! If you’re trying to adjust a system state to your goal, but you only receive delayed information about what the system state is, you will overshoot and undershoot.

Same if your information is timely, but your response isn’t. For example, it takes several years to build an electric power plant, and then that plant lasts, say, thirty years. Those delays make it impossible to writing, build exactly the right number of plants to supply a rapidly changing demand. Even with immense effort at forecasting, almost every electricity industry in the world experiences long oscillations between overcapacity and undercapacity. A system just can’t respond to short-term changes when it has long-term delays.

That’s why a massive central-planning system, such as the Soviet Union or General Motors, necessarily functions poorly. Because we know they’re important, we systems folks see delays wherever we look. The delay between the time when a pollutant is dumped on the land and when it trickles down to the groundwater. To Buy London! The delay between the birth of a child and the time when that child is ready to have a child. Writing Letter! The delay between the first successful test of a new technology and essay to buy house the time when that technology is installed throughout the economy. The time it takes for a price to adjust to a supply-demand imbalance. A delay in a feedback process is critical RELATIVE TO RATES OF CHANGE (growth, fluctuation, decay) IN THE STOCKS THAT THE FEEDBACK LOOP IS TRYING TO CONTROL. Delays that are too short cause overreaction, “chasing your tail,” oscillations amplified by the jumpiness of the response. Sample Writing Letter! Delays that are too long cause damped, sustained, or exploding oscillations, depending on how much too long. Buy Essay Online Control Fate! At the extreme they cause chaos.

Overlong delays in a system with a threshold, a danger point, a range past which irreversible damage can occur, cause overshoot and of report collapse. I would list delay length as a high leverage point, except for the fact that delays are not often easily changeable. Pollution Sarasota! Things take as long as they take. You can’t do a lot about the construction time of a major piece of of report letter, capital, or the maturation time of a child, or the growth rate of a forest. It’s usually easier to sarasota, SLOW DOWN THE CHANGE RATE, so that inevitable feedback delays won’t cause so much trouble.

That’s why growth rates are higher up on the leverage-point list than delay times. And that’s why slowing economic growth is a greater leverage point in Forrester’s world model than faster technological development or freer market prices. Those are attempts to speed up the rate of adjustment. But the world’s physical capital plant, its factories and boilers, the concrete manifestations of its working technologies, can only change so fast, even in the face of new prices or new ideas — and prices and ideas don’t change instantly either, not through a whole global culture. There’s more leverage in slowing the system down so technologies and prices can keep up with it, than there is in wishing the delays away. But if there is sample of report letter a delay in your system that can be changed, changing it can have big effects. Watch out! Be sure you change it in cheap the media, the right direction! (For example, the great push to reduce information and money transfer delays in financial markets is just asking for wild gyrations)

8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. Now we’re beginning to move from the physical part of the system to the information and control parts, where more leverage can be found. Negative feedback loops are ubiquitous in systems. Nature evolves them and sample humans invent them as controls to keep important system states within safe bounds. A thermostat loop is the classic example. Hanson! Its purpose is to keep the sample writing, system state called “room temperature” fairly constant at a desired level. Any negative feedback loop needs a goal (the thermostat setting), a monitoring and signaling device to detect excursions from the goal (the thermostat), and a response mechanism (the furnace and/or air conditioner, fans, heat pipes, fuel, etc.). A complex system usually has numerous negative feedback loops it can bring into control fate, play, so it can self-correct under different conditions and impacts. Some of those loops may be inactive much of the time — like the emergency cooling system in writing, a nuclear power plant, or your ability to sweat or shiver to do my, maintain your body temperature — but their presence is critical to the long-term welfare of the system.

One of the big mistakes we make is to strip away these “emergency” response mechanisms because they aren’t often used and they appear to sample letter, be costly. In the short term we see no effect from doing this. In the long term, we drastically narrow the do my essay, range of of report, conditions over which the system can survive. Essays Shopping! One of the of report writing, most heartbreaking ways we do this is in encroaching on on Aime Cesaire - Tim the habitats of endangered species. Another is in of report writing, encroaching on on internet our own time for rest, recreation, socialization, and meditation. The “strength” of a negative loop — its ability to sample writing, keep its appointed stock at buy essay control of our fate or near its goal — depends on the combination of all its parameters and links — the accuracy and rapidity of monitoring, the sample letter, quickness and power of buy essay control, response, the directness and of report size of corrective flows. Sometimes there are leverage points here. Take markets, for example, the negative feedback systems that are all but worshipped by economists — and they can indeed be marvels of online control of our fate, self-correction, as prices vary to moderate supply and demand and keep them in balance. The more the price — the central piece of information signaling both producers and consumers — is kept clear, unambiguous, timely, and truthful, the more smoothly markets will operate. Prices that reflect full costs will tell consumers how much they can actually afford and will reward efficient producers.

Companies and governments are fatally attracted to the price leverage point, of course, all of of report, them determinedly pushing it in the wrong direction with subsidies, fixes, externalities, taxes, and other forms of confusion. These folks are trying to weaken the feedback power of market signals by twisting information in their favor. The REAL leverage here is to essays on internet shopping, keep them from doing it. Sample Of Report Writing! Hence the pollution essays made sarasota, necessity of anti-trust laws, truth-in-advertising laws, attempts to internalize costs (such as pollution taxes), the removal of perverse subsidies, and other ways of leveling market playing fields. None of which get far these days, because of the weakening of another set of negative feedback loops — those of democracy. This great system was invented to put self-correcting feedback between the people and their government.

The people, informed about what their elected representatives do, respond by voting those representatives in or out of office. The process depends upon of report writing the free, full, unbiased flow of information back and forth between electorate and do my leaders. Billions of dollars are spent to limit and sample bias and dominate that flow. Give the people who want to distort market price signals the power to pay off government leaders, get the online taking of our, channels of communication to be self-interested corporate partners themselves, and none of the writing letter, necessary negative feedbacks work well. Both market and democracy erode. The strength of a negative feedback loop is important RELATIVE TO THE IMPACT IT IS DESIGNED TO CORRECT. If the impact increases in strength, the pollution made, feedbacks have to sample writing, be strengthened too. A thermostat system may work fine on a cold winter day — but open all the windows and its corrective power will fail. On Internet! Democracy worked better before the advent of the sample of report letter, brainwashing power of centralized mass communications.

Traditional controls on fishing were sufficient until radar spotting and drift nets and pollution essays other technologies made it possible for a few actors to wipe out the fish. The power of big industry calls for the power of big government to hold it in writing letter, check; a global economy makes necessary a global government and cheap taking global regulations. Here are some examples of strengthening negative feedback controls to of report writing letter, improve a system’s self-correcting abilities: preventive medicine, exercise, and good nutrition to bolster the cheap, body’s ability to fight disease, integrated pest management to encourage natural predators of crop pests, the Freedom of of report, Information Act to reduce government secrecy, monitoring systems to report on environmental damage, protection for whistleblowers, impact fees, pollution taxes, and performance bonds to recapture the on internet, externalized public costs of letter, private benefits. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. A negative feedback loop is self-correcting; a positive feedback loop is self-reinforcing. Buy Research Online! The more it works, the sample of report writing letter, more it gains power to work some more. The more people catch the do my essay cheap 90, flu, the of report letter, more they infect other people. The more babies are born, the more people grow up to have babies. The more money you have in the bank, the more interest you earn, the on internet shopping, more money you have in the bank. The more the soil erodes, the less vegetation it can support, the fewer roots and leaves to soften rain and runoff, the more soil erodes.

The more high-energy neutrons in the critical mass, the more they knock into nuclei and generate more. Positive feedback loops are sources of growth, explosion, erosion, and collapse in systems. A system with an unchecked positive loop ultimately will destroy itself. That’s why there are so few of them. Usually a negative loop will kick in sooner or later. The epidemic will run out of infectable people — or people will take increasingly strong steps to avoid being infected. The death rate will rise to equal the birth rate — or people will see the consequences of unchecked population growth and have fewer babies. The soil will erode away to bedrock, and after a million years the sample of report writing letter, bedrock will crumble into essays shopping, new soil — or people will stop overgrazing, put up checkdams, plant trees, and stop the erosion. In all those examples, the first outcome is what will happen if the positive loop runs its course, the second is sample of report letter what will happen if there’s an cheap 90 intervention to reduce its self-multiplying power. Reducing the gain around a positive loop — slowing the growth — is usually a more powerful leverage point in systems than strengthening negative loops, and sample writing letter much preferable to letting the positive loop run. Population and economic growth rates in the world model are leverage points, because slowing them gives the many negative loops, through technology and markets and online mix other forms of sample of report, adaptation, all of do my essay cheap 90, which have limits and of report writing letter delays, time to function.

It’s the same as slowing the car when you’re driving too fast, rather than calling for on Aime Cesaire - Tim Hanson … more responsive brakes or technical advances in steering. Another example: there are many positive feedback loops in society that reward the winners of sample writing, a competition with the resources to win even bigger next time. Systems folks call them “success to the successful” loops. Rich people collect interest; poor people pay it. Rich people pay accountants and do my lean on politicians to writing letter, reduce their taxes; poor people can’t. Rich people give their kids inheritances and good educations; poor kids lose out. Anti-poverty programs are weak negative loops that try to counter these strong positive ones. It would be much more effective to weaken the essay cheap 90, positive loops. That’s what progressive income tax, inheritance tax, and universal high-quality public education programs are meant to do. (If rich people can buy government and weaken, rather than strengthen those of sample of report writing letter, measures, the on internet, government, instead of balancing “success to the successful” loops, becomes just another instrument to reinforce them!) The most interesting behavior that rapidly turning positive loops can trigger is sample of report letter chaos.

This wild, unpredictable, unreplicable, and yet bounded behavior happens when a system starts changing much, much faster than its negative loops can react to it. For example, if you keep raising the capital growth rate in - Tim, the world model, eventually you get to a point where one tiny increase more will shift the economy from exponential growth to sample of report writing, oscillation. Essays! Another nudge upward gives the oscillation a double beat. And just the tiniest further nudge sends it into chaos. I don’t expect the sample letter, world economy to turn chaotic any time soon (not for that reason, anyway). That behavior occurs only in unrealistic parameter ranges, equivalent to buy research papers online mix, doubling the size of the economy within a year. Real-world systems can turn chaotic, however, if something in them can grow or decline very fast. Fast-replicating bacteria or insect populations, very infectious epidemics, wild speculative bubbles in money systems, neutron fluxes in the guts of nuclear power plants. These systems are hard to control, and control must involve slowing down the positive feedbacks. In more ordinary systems, look for letter leverage points around birth rates, interest rates, erosion rates, “success to the successful” loops, any place where the more you have of pollution made sarasota, something, the more you have the possibility of having more.

6. Of Report Letter! The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information). There was this subdivision of identical houses, the story goes, except that for taking control of our fate some reason the electric meter in letter, some of the houses was installed in the basement and in others it was installed in the front hall, where the to buy house london, residents could see it constantly, going round faster or slower as they used more or less electricity. With no other change, with identical prices, electricity consumption was 30 percent lower in of report letter, the houses where the meter was in the front hall. We systems-heads love that story because it’s an example of to buy, a high leverage point in the information structure of the system. It’s not a parameter adjustment, not a strengthening or weakening of an existing loop. It’s a NEW LOOP, delivering feedback to sample of report letter, a place where it wasn’t going before. A more recent example is the Toxic Release Inventory — the pollution essays, U.S. government’s requirement, instituted in 1986, that every factory releasing hazardous air pollutants report those emissions publicly every year. Writing! Suddenly every community could find out precisely what was coming out of the smokestacks in town.

There was no law against those emissions, no fines, no determination of “safe” levels, just information. But by 1990 emissions dropped 40 percent. They’ve continued to essay to buy london, go down since, not so much because of citizen outrage as because of corporate shame. One chemical company that found itself on the Top Ten Polluters list reduced its emissions by 90 percent, just to “get off that list.” Missing feedback is one of the most common causes of system malfunction. Adding or restoring information can be a powerful intervention, usually much easier and sample letter cheaper than rebuilding physical infrastructure. Cheap Mix! The tragedy of the commons that is crashing the of report, world’s commercial fisheries occurs because there is do my 90 no feedback from the state of the fish population to the decision to invest in fishing vessels. (Contrary to economic opinion, the price of fish doesn’t provide that feedback.

As the fish get more scarce and hence more expensive, it becomes all the more profitable to go out and catch them. That’s a perverse feedback, a positive loop that leads to collapse.) It’s important that the missing feedback be restored to the right place and in of report writing letter, compelling form. To take another tragedy of the commons, it’s not enough to inform all the users of an aquifer that the groundwater level is essay 90 dropping. That could initiate a race to the bottom.

It would be more effective to set a water price that rises steeply as the pumping rate begins to exceed the of report, recharge rate. Compelling feedback. Suppose taxpayers got to specify on their return forms what government services their tax payments must be spent on. (Radical democracy!) Suppose any town or company that puts a water intake pipe in a river had to to buy, put it immediately DOWNSTREAM from sample of report letter, its own outflow pipe. Suppose any public or private official who made the decision to invest in buy essay online cheap taking control, a nuclear power plant got the waste from that plant stored on sample letter his/her lawn. Online Taking Control Fate! Suppose (this is an old one) the politicians who declare war were required to spend that war in the front lines. There is a systematic tendency on the part of human beings to avoid accountability for their own decisions. Writing Letter! That’s why there are so many missing feedback loops — and why this kind of leverage point is so often popular with the masses, unpopular with the powers that be, and 90 effective, if you can get the sample of report, powers that be to permit it to happen (or go around them and make it happen anyway). 5. The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints). The rules of the system define its scope, its boundaries, its degrees of freedom. Thou shalt not kill. Everyone has the right of made sarasota, free speech.

Contracts are to be honored. The president serves four-year terms and cannot serve more than two of them. Nine people on sample writing a team, you have to touch every base, three strikes and Essay on Aime - Tim Hanson you’re out. If you get caught robbing a bank, you go to jail. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the USSR and sample opened information flows ( glasnost ) and changed the buy research online mix, economic rules ( perestroika ), and look what happened. Constitutions are the strongest examples of sample of report letter, social rules. Physical laws such as the second law of thermodynamics are absolute rules, whether we understand them or not or like them or not. Of Our! Laws, punishments, incentives, and informal social agreements are progressively weaker rules. To demonstrate the power of rules, I like to ask my students to imagine different ones for sample letter a college.

Suppose the students graded the teachers, or each other. Suppose there were no degrees: you come to college when you want to learn something, and you leave when you’ve learned it. Suppose tenure were awarded to professors according to their ability to solve real-world problems, rather than to essay to buy, publish academic papers. Suppose a class got graded as a group, instead of as individuals. As we try to imagine restructured rules like that and what our behavior would be under them, we come to understand the power of rules. They are high leverage points. Sample Letter! Power over on internet shopping, the rules is real power. That’s why lobbyists congregate when Congress writes laws, and why the Supreme Court, which interprets and delineates the Constitution — the rules for writing the rules — has even more power than Congress. If you want to understand the deepest malfunctions of systems, pay attention to the rules, and to who has power over them. That’s why my systems intuition was sending off alarm bells as the new world trade system was explained to me.

It is a system with rules designed by corporations, run by corporations, for sample letter the benefit of corporations. Its rules exclude almost any feedback from Essay on Aime Cesaire Hanson …, any other sector of society. Of Report Writing! Most of its meetings are closed even to the press (no information flow, no feedback). It forces nations into cheap taking control fate, positive loops “racing to the bottom,” competing with each other to weaken environmental and social safeguards in sample, order to Essay on Aime Cesaire - Tim Hanson, attract corporate investment. It’s a recipe for unleashing “success to the successful” loops, until they generate enormous accumulations of power and huge centralized planning systems that will destroy themselves, just as the Soviet Union destroyed itself, and for similar systemic reasons.

4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. The most stunning thing living systems and some social systems can do is to change themselves utterly by creating whole new structures and behaviors. In biological systems that power is called evolution. In human economies it’s called technical advance or social revolution. In systems lingo it’s called self-organization. Self-organization means changing any aspect of sample of report writing, a system lower on this list — adding completely new physical structures, such as brains or wings or computers — adding new negative or positive loops, or new rules. The ability to self-organize is the strongest form of system resilience. A system that can evolve can survive almost any change, by changing itself. The human immune system has the power to develop new responses to (some kinds of ) insults it has never before encountered.

The human brain can take in new information and pop out completely new thoughts. The power of self-organization seems so wondrous that we tend to Essay on Aime Cesaire - Tim Hanson, regard it as mysterious, miraculous, manna from heaven. Economists often model technology as literal manna — coming from nowhere, costing nothing, increasing the productivity of an economy by writing some steady percent each year. For centuries people have regarded the spectacular variety of nature with the same awe. Only a divine creator could bring forth such a creation. Further investigation of self-organizing systems reveals that the divine creator, if there is one, does not have to produce evolutionary miracles. Pollution Essays Made Sarasota! He, she, or it just has to write marvelously clever RULES FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION. These rules basically govern how, where, and writing letter what the system can add onto or subtract from itself under what conditions. As hundreds of do my 90, self-organizing computer models have demonstrated, complex and delightful patterns can evolve from quite simple evolutionary algorithms. (That need not mean that real-world algorithms are simple, only that they can be.) The genetic code within the DNA that is the basis of all biological evolution contains just four different letters, combined into words of three letters each.

That pattern, and the rules for replicating and rearranging it, has been constant for sample of report writing letter something like three billion years, during which it has spewed out an essays unimaginable variety of failed and successful self-evolved creatures. Self-organization is basically a matter of an evolutionary raw material — a highly variable stock of information from sample writing, which to select possible patterns — and a means for experimentation, for shopping selecting and testing new patterns. For biological evolution the writing, raw material is DNA, one source of variety is do my essay cheap spontaneous mutation, and the testing mechanism is sample something like punctuated Darwinian selection. Do My Cheap 90! For technology the raw material is the body of understanding science has accumulated and stored in libraries and in the brains of sample, its practitioners. The source of variety is human creativity (whatever THAT is) and the selection mechanism can be whatever the market will reward, or whatever governments and foundations will fund, or whatever meets human needs.

When you understand the pollution essays made sarasota, power of system self-organization, you begin to understand why biologists worship biodiversity even more than economists worship technology. The wildly varied stock of DNA, evolved and accumulated over billions of years, is the source of evolutionary potential, just as science libraries and labs and universities where scientists are trained are the source of technological potential. Allowing species to go extinct is a systems crime, just as randomly eliminating all copies of particular science journals, or particular kinds of scientists, would be. The same could be said of human cultures, of course, which are the store of behavioral repertoires, accumulated over of report writing letter, not billions, but hundreds of thousands of years. Do My Essay 90! They are a stock out of which social evolution can arise. Unfortunately, people appreciate the precious evolutionary potential of cultures even less than they understand the preciousness of every genetic variation in the world’s ground squirrels. I guess that’s because one aspect of almost every culture is the belief in the utter superiority of that culture. Insistence on a single culture shuts down learning. Cuts back resilience. Any system, biological, economic, or social, that gets so encrusted that it cannot self-evolve, a system that systematically scorns experimentation and wipes out the raw material of innovation, is doomed over the long term on this highly variable planet. The intervention point here is obvious, but unpopular.

Encouraging variability and experimentation and diversity means “losing control.” Let a thousand flowers bloom and ANYTHING could happen! Who wants that? Let’s play it safe and of report push this leverage point in the wrong direction by wiping out biological, cultural, social, and market diversity! Right there, the diversity-destroying consequence of the push for control, that demonstrates why the goal of cheap taking control, a system is sample a leverage point superior to the self-organizing ability of a system. If the goal is to bring more and more of the world under the control of one particular central planning system (the empire of Genghis Khan, the world of do my 90, Islam, the People’s Republic of China, Wal-Mart, Disney, whatever), then everything further down the list, physical stocks and flows, feedback loops, information flows, even self-organizing behavior, will be twisted to conform to that goal.

That’s why I can’t get into arguments about whether genetic engineering is a “good” or a “bad” thing. Like all technologies, it depends upon of report writing who is wielding it, with what goal. The only thing one can say is that if corporations wield it for the purpose of generating marketable products, that is a very different goal, a different selection mechanism, a different direction for evolution than anything the planet has seen so far. As my little single-loop examples have shown, most negative feedback loops within systems have their own goals — to keep the bathwater at Essay Cesaire … the right level, to keep the room temperature comfortable, to keep inventories stocked at sufficient levels, to keep enough water behind the dam. Those goals are important leverage points for pieces of systems, and most people realize that. If you want the of report writing letter, room warmer, you know the thermostat setting is the made sarasota, place to intervene.

But there are larger, less obvious, higher-leverage goals, those of the entire system. Even people within systems don’t often recognize what whole-system goal they are serving. To make profits, most corporations would say, but that’s just a rule, a necessary condition to stay in the game. Sample Of Report! What is the point of the game? To grow, to increase market share, to bring the world (customers, suppliers, regulators) more and more under the control of the corporation, so that its operations becomes ever more shielded from uncertainty. Shopping! John Kenneth Galbraith recognized that corporate goal — to sample of report letter, engulf everything — long ago. 5 It’s the goal of a cancer too.

Actually it’s the goal of every living population — and only a bad one when it isn’t balanced by higher-level negative feedback loops that never let an upstart power-loop-driven entity control the world. Buy Research Cheap The Media! The goal of keeping the market competitive has to trump the goal of each corporation to sample letter, eliminate its competitors (and brainwash its customers and essay to buy london swallow its suppliers), just as in ecosystems, the goal of of report writing, keeping populations in balance and evolving has to buy essay online of our fate, trump the goal of each population to reproduce without limit. I said awhile back that changing the players in the system is a low-level intervention, as long as the players fit into the same old system. The exception to that rule is at the top, where a single player can have the power to sample letter, change the system’s goal. I have watched in wonder as — only very occasionally — a new leader in an organization, from Dartmouth College to Nazi Germany, comes in, enunciates a new goal, and taking control of our fate swings hundreds or thousands or millions of perfectly intelligent, rational people off in a new direction.

That’s what Ronald Reagan did, and we watched it happen. Sample! Not long before he came to office, a president could say “Ask not what government can do for you, ask what you can do for the government,” and papers the media mix no one even laughed. Reagan said over and over, the goal is not to get the people to sample letter, help the Cesaire …, government and of report not to get government to help the people, but to get government off our backs. One can argue, and I would, that larger system changes and the rise of corporate power over government let him get away with that. But the thoroughness with which the public discourse in the U.S. and even the world has been changed since Reagan is testimony to the high leverage of articulating, meaning, repeating, standing up for, insisting upon do my essay cheap 90 new system goals. 2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. Another of Jay Forrester’s famous systems sayings goes: it doesn’t matter how the tax law of a country is written. There is a shared idea in the minds of the of report writing letter, society about what a “fair” distribution of the tax load is. Whatever the rules say, by fair means or foul, by complications, cheating, exemptions or deductions, by Essay - Tim … constant sniping at the rules, actual tax payments will push right up against the accepted idea of letter, “fairness.” The shared idea in the minds of society, the great big unstated assumptions — unstated because unnecessary to state; everyone already knows them — constitute that society’s paradigm, or deepest set of beliefs about how the world works. There is a difference between nouns and essay to buy house london verbs.

Money measures something real and has real meaning (therefore people who are paid less are literally worth less). Growth is good. Nature is a stock of resources to be converted to human purposes. Evolution stopped with the emergence of Homo sapiens . One can “own” land. Those are just a few of the paradigmatic assumptions of our current culture, all of which have utterly dumfounded other cultures, who thought them not the least bit obvious. Paradigms are the sources of systems. From them, from writing, shared social agreements about the nature of reality, come system goals and information flows, feedbacks, stocks, flows and everything else about systems. No one has ever said that better than Ralph Waldo Emerson: Every nation and on internet shopping every man instantly surround themselves with a material apparatus which exactly corresponds to … their state of thought.

Observe how every truth and every error, each a thought of sample of report letter, some man’s mind, clothes itself with societies, houses, cities, language, ceremonies, newspapers. Observe the ideas of the present day … see how timber, brick, lime, and stone have flown into convenient shape, obedient to the master idea reigning in the minds of to buy, many persons…. It follows, of course, that the least enlargement of ideas … would cause the most striking changes of external things. 6. The ancient Egyptians built pyramids because they believed in an afterlife. Of Report Letter! We build skyscrapers, because we believe that space in downtown cities is cheap 90 enormously valuable. (Except for blighted spaces, often near the skyscrapers, which we believe are worthless.) Whether it was Copernicus and Kepler showing that the earth is not the center of the universe, or Einstein hypothesizing that matter and energy are interchangeable, or Adam Smith postulating that the selfish actions of individual players in markets wonderfully accumulate to the common good, people who have managed to intervene in systems at the level of writing letter, paradigm have hit a leverage point that totally transforms systems. You could say paradigms are harder to change than anything else about a system, and therefore this item should be lowest on pollution essays sarasota the list, not second-to-highest.

But there’s nothing physical or expensive or even slow in the process of paradigm change. In a single individual it can happen in a millisecond. Sample Writing Letter! All it takes is a click in the mind, a falling of scales from shopping, eyes, a new way of seeing. Whole societies are another matter — they resist challenges to their paradigm harder than they resist anything else. So how do you change paradigms? Thomas Kuhn, who wrote the seminal book about the great paradigm shifts of science, 7 has a lot to say about of report writing that. In a nutshell, you keep pointing at the anomalies and failures in essay house london, the old paradigm, you keep coming yourself, and loudly and with assurance from the sample letter, new one, you insert people with the new paradigm in places of public visibility and buy research papers online cheap the media mix power. You don’t waste time with reactionaries; rather you work with active change agents and with the vast middle ground of people who are open-minded. Systems folks would say you change paradigms by modeling a system, which takes you outside the system and sample of report letter forces you to to buy house, see it whole. We say that because our own paradigms have been changed that way.

1. The power to transcend paradigms. There is yet one leverage point that is writing even higher than changing a paradigm. That is to keep oneself unattached in the arena of paradigms, to on Aime - Tim Hanson …, stay flexible, to realize that NO paradigm is sample “true,” that every one, including the one that sweetly shapes your own worldview, is Essay - Tim … a tremendously limited understanding of an immense and sample of report writing letter amazing universe that is far beyond human comprehension. It is to london, “get” at a gut level the sample writing, paradigm that there are paradigms, and to see that that itself is a paradigm, and to regard that whole realization as devastatingly funny. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap The Media Mix! It is to let go into letter, Not Knowing, into what the Buddhists call enlightenment. People who cling to paradigms (which means just about all of us) take one look at the spacious possibility that everything they think is Essay on Aime - Tim … guaranteed to sample, be nonsense and pedal rapidly in the opposite direction. Surely there is no power, no control, no understanding, not even a reason for being, much less acting, in the notion or experience that there is online cheap taking control no certainty in any worldview.

But, in fact, everyone who has managed to entertain that idea, for a moment or for a lifetime, has found it to be the basis for radical empowerment. If no paradigm is right, you can choose whatever one will help to letter, achieve your purpose. If you have no idea where to get a purpose, you can listen to the universe (or put in the name of your favorite deity here) and do his, her, its will, which is probably a lot better informed than your will. It is in this space of made sarasota, mastery over paradigms that people throw off addictions, live in constant joy, bring down empires, get locked up or burned at the stake or crucified or shot, and have impacts that last for millennia. Back from the sublime to the ridiculous, from enlightenment to caveats.

There is so much that has to be said to qualify this list. It is writing tentative and its order is slithery. There are exceptions to every item that can move it up or down the order of pollution, leverage. Having had the list percolating in my subconscious for years has not transformed me into a Superwoman. The higher the leverage point, the sample of report writing, more the system will resist changing it — that’s why societies have to rub out truly enlightened beings. Magical leverage points are not easily accessible, even if we know where they are and which direction to push on pollution essays made sarasota them.

There are no cheap tickets to mastery. You have to work hard at it, whether that means rigorously analyzing a system or rigorously casting off your own paradigms and throwing yourself into sample of report, the humility of Not Knowing. Buy Essay Of Our! In the end, it seems that mastery has less to do with pushing leverage points than it does with strategically, profoundly, madly letting go. J.W. Forrester, World Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1971 J.W. Forrester, Urban Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1969.

Thanks to David Holmstrom of Santiago, Chile. For an example, see Dennis Meadows’s model of of report writing letter, commodity price fluctuations: D.L. Meadows, Dynamics of Commodity Production Cycles , Portland OR, 1970. John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State , 1967. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “War,” (lecture delivered in Boston, March, 1838). Reprinted in Emerson’s Complete Works , vol. XI, Boston, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1887, p. 177. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962.

About The Donella Meadows Project. The mission of the Donella Meadows Project is to preserve Donella (Dana) H. Meadows’s legacy as an online taking control fate inspiring leader, scholar, writer, and teacher; to manage the intellectual property rights related to Dana’s published work; to provide and maintain a comprehensive and easily accessible archive of letter, her work online, including articles, columns, and letters; to develop new resources and programs that apply her ideas to current issues and buy research online make them available to an ever-larger network of students, practitioners, and sample letter leaders in social change. Read More. DMI will be producing an E-newsletter with news from the organization, updates on the work of our fellows, and house london more. Sign up here if you'd like to hear about letter what we're working on. About The Donella Meadows Project. The Donella Meadows Project, a project of the Academy for Systems Change, 2 Beaver Meadow Road, Norwich, Vermont 05055 | 802-649-7250 | Contact Us. The Academy for Systems Change site is a Catalyst Webworks production.

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Commentaire compos© : Les Essais, Montaigne - Fran§ais - PremiЁre L. digiSchool vous propose un document de Fran§ais de PremiЁre L sur le thЁme La question de l'homme dans les genres de l'argumentation du XVIЁme siЁcle nos jours , propos de la proposition d'un commentaire compos© pour le texte de Montaigne , extrait des Essais . [Les Cannibales] font des guerres contre les nations qui sont au-del de leurs montagnes, plus loin sur la terre ferme, guerres o№ ils vont tous nus, n’ayant d’autres armes que des arcs ou des ©p©es de bois, aiguis©es par un bout, la fa§on des fers de nos ©pieux. Of Report Writing Letter? C’est une chose ©tonnante que la duret© de leurs combats, car, pour ce qui est des d©routes et de l’effroi, ils ne savent pas ce que c’est. Essay - Tim? Chacun rapporte, en troph©e personnel, la tЄte de l’ennemi qu’il a tu©e et il l’attache l’entr©e de son logis. Sample Writing Letter? AprЁs avoir longtemps bien trait© leurs prisonniers et avec touts les agr©ments auxquels ils se peuvent penser, celui qui en est le ma®tre fait une grande assembl©e des gens de sa connaissance : il attache une corde l’un des bras du prisonnier par le bout de laquelle il le tient, ©loign© de quelques pas, de peur d’Єtre bless© par lui, et il donne au plus cher de ses amis l’autre bras tenir de mЄme [fa§on] ; puis eux deux, en pr©sence de toute l’assembl©e, l’assomment coups d’©p©e. Hanson …? Cela fait, ils le rґtissent et en mangent en commun ; ils en envoient aussi des morceaux ceux de leurs amis qui sont absents. Sample Of Report Letter? Ce n’est pas, comme on house london, pense, pour s’en nourrir, ainsi que faisaient anciennement les Scythes : c’est pour manifester une trЁs grande vengeance. Of Report Writing? Et pour preuve qu’il en est bien ainsi, [voici un fait] : s’©tant aper§u que les Portugais, qui s’©taient alli©s leurs adversaires, usaient contre eux, quand ils les prenaient, d’une autre sorte de mort qui consistait les enterrer jusqu’ la ceinture et leur tirer sur le reste du corps force coups de traits , puis les pendre, ils pensЁrent que ces gens-ci de l’ancien monde, en hommes qui avaient sem© la connaissance de beaucoup de vices dans leur voisinage et qui ©taient beaucoup plus grands ma®tres qu’eux en toute sorte de m©chancet©, n’adoptaient pas sans cause cette sorte de vengeance et qu’elle devait Єtre plus p©nible que la leur ; [alors] ils commencЁrent abandonner leur maniЁre ancienne pour suivre celle-ci. Essay House? Je ne suis pas fўch© que nous soulignions l’horreur barbare qu’il y a dans une telle action, mais plutґt du fait que, jugeant bien de leurs fautes, nous soyons si aveugles l’©gard des nґtres. Writing Letter? Je pense qu’il y a plus de barbarie manger un homme vivant qu’ le manger mort, d©chirer par des tortures et des supplices un corps ayant encore toute sa sensibilit©, le faire rґtir petit petit, le faire mordre et tuer par les chiens et les pourceaux (comme nous l’avons non seulement lu, mais vu de fra®che date, non entre des ennemis anciens, mais entre des voisins et concitoyens et, qui pis est, sous pr©texte de pi©t© et de religion ) que de le rґtir et manger aprЁs qu’il est tr©pass©.

Chrysippe et Z©non , chefs de l’©cole StoЇque, ont bien pens© qu’il n’y avait aucun mal se servir de notre chair, quelque usage que ce f»t pour notre besoin, et mЄme d’en tirer de la nourriture, comme [le firent] nos ancЄtres [quand], assi©g©s dans la ville d’Al©sia, ils se r©solurent lutter contre la faim due ce siЁge en utilisant les corps des vieillards, des femmes et autres personnes inutiles au combat. Vascones, fama est, alimentis talibus usi. Les m©decins aussi ne craignent pas de s’en servir pour toute sorte d’emploi en faveur de notre sant©, soit pour l’appliquer au-dedans ou au dehors ; mais il ne se trouva jamais aucune opinion ce point d©r©gl©e qu’elle excusўt la trahison, la d©loyaut©, la tyrannie, la cruaut©, qui sont nos fautes habituelles. Nous pouvons donc bien appeler ces hommes barbares eu ©gard aux rЁgles de la raison, mais non pas eu ©gard nous, qui les surpassons en toute sorte de barbarie. Michel de Montaigne , Les essais , Livre I, Chapitre XXXI, « Sur les Cannibales », 1595, trad. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap The Media Mix? D'Andr© Lanly. Sample Writing Letter? ‰ditions Champion, Paris 1989/‰ditions Gallimard, Quarto, 2009. En 1562, Montaigne qui accompagne l'arm©e royale Rouen y rencontre des « cannibales » du Br©sil.

Ces Indiens fascinent les Europ©ens qui passent leur temps les d©crire, non sans s’interroger sur eux-mЄmes. Essay? Dans ce passage extrait des Essais , Montaigne tente de renverser l'opinion commune qui assimile le sauvage un barbare. Dans un premier temps nous verrons en quoi Montaigne questionne son lecteur sur sa repr©sentation du cannibalisme. Of Report Letter? Puis nous analyserons la maniЁre dont Montaigne opЁre et montrerons en quoi nous avons ici affaire un mode d’argumentation original. LA DESCRIPTION DES COUTUMES DES INDIENS DU BRESIL. Montaigne se place ici en position d'observateur pour expliquer son lecteur, son interlocuteur (on notera l'utilisation assez r©guliЁre des pronoms « je » et « nous » dans le texte) ce qu'il a appris de ces Indiens du Br©sil. Essays? Le registre se fait didactique. Of Report Writing? De nombreux verbes d'actions ©voquent les coutumes des Indiens en matiЁre de combat. - Tim? L'auteur tente aussi de poser un cadre la description qu'il fait de ces peuples : au-del de leurs montagnes, plus loin sur la terre ferme , de mЄme qu'il ©voque ©galement d'embl©e leur nudit© (ils vont tous nus), pos©e comme un fait et non comme une condamnation. L’analyse des m©thodes de combat.

L'auteur choisit ici de se centrer sur la description des m©thodes de combat employ©es par les Indiens. Letter? Le champ lexical en t©moigne « font des guerres ; armes ; arcs ; des ©p©es de bois, aiguis©es par un bout, la fa§on des fers de nos ©pieu ; la duret© de leurs combats ; la tЄte de l’ennemi qu’il a tu©e ». Une s©rie d'assez longues phrases au pr©sent de v©rit© g©n©ral d©taille les diff©rentes ©tapes du traitement des prisonniers. Essay To Buy House London? Des compl©ments circonstanciels de temps (AprЁs avoir longtemps ; puis ; Cela fait ) marquent ces ©tapes. L’auteur semble parfois s'impliquer dans cette description en portant un jugement qui relЁve de l’©tonnement. Letter? La marque de modalisation que l'on retrouve dans l'expression « C’est une chose ©tonnante que la duret© de leurs combats » en t©moigne. Cependant cette intervention de l'auteur dans la description ne prend pas des allures moralisatrices. Essay Cheap? On peut noter que la description des comportements lors de la prise d'un ennemi est plutґt neutre et qu'ici Montaigne se contente de rapporter des faits ( il attache une corde l’un des bras du prisonnier par le bout de laquelle il le tient, ©loign© de quelques pas, de peur d’Єtre bless© par lui, et il donne au plus cher de ses amis ). L'auteur propose ensuite une explication ces comportements qui pourraient sembler ©trangers, choquants pour le lecteur europ©en. Sample Of Report Writing? C’est l'id©e de vengeance et non la faim qui provoque ce comportement cannibale. Essays Sarasota? Que faut-il entendre cette explication ? Implicitement Montaigne amЁne le lecteur comprendre que l'on s'©loigne du comportement animal ( manger de la chair de sa propre espЁce pour assurer sa survie) pour entrer dans une dimension beaucoup plus symbolique de l'acte ; gagner en honneur . Sample Writing Letter? L'expression « en troph©e personnel » le confirme.

Bien loin d'Єtre un comportement dict© par un besoin vital (c’est pour manifester une trЁs grande vengeance), il s'agit ici d'un rituel d'une grande complexit©. Essay House? Tout ici relЁve du culturel et non de l’animal. UNE ATTITUDE DISTANCIEE SUR LE COMPORTEMENT DES CANNIBALES DU BRESIL : AUTRES EXEMPLES DE CANNIBALISME DANS L’HISTOIRE. De fait Montaigne ne condamne pas d'embl©e les cannibales du Br©sil. Of Report Writing Letter? Il va mЄme dans sa d©monstration associer sa description d'autres exemples de cannibalisme en piochant dans l'histoire ancienne (les auteurs de la Renaissance, ne l'oublions pas, sont f©rus de textes anciens). Cheap Control Of Our Fate? D'une part il ©voque les Scythes, qui aux yeux des Grecs sont des barbares , puis travers la citation de Juv©nal, les actes d'anthropophagie qui se sont d©roul©s au cours du siЁge dans la ville d’Al©sia . Sample Of Report Writing Letter? Dans les deux cas historiques, les protagonistes ont agi sous le coup de la faim (lutter contre la faim) qui les mena§ait d'extinction (lutter contre la faim).

Montaigne n'oublie pas de le souligner comme pour mieux mettre en regard la diff©rence avec « ses » Indiens du Br©sil. La reconnaissance des « qualit©s » des cannibales indiens. De maniЁre allusive, sans forcer le trait, Montaigne va mettre en valeur les qualit©s qu'il a entrevues dans la d©couverte de ces populations du Nouveau Monde. Cheap? Il en souligne tout autant le courage (car, pour ce qui est des d©routes et de l’effroi, ils ne savent pas ce que c’est. Of Report Writing Letter? ), le sens de l'amiti© (le ma®tre fait une grande assembl©e des gens de sa connaissance ; il donne au plus cher de ses amis) et de l'accueil (AprЁs avoir longtemps bien trait© leurs prisonniers et avec touts les agr©ments auxquels ils se peuvent penser,) , celui du partage (ils en envoient aussi des morceaux ceux de leurs amis qui sont absents. Essay On Aime Hanson …? ). Sample Of Report Writing Letter? De mЄme il note leur sens de l'observation assez aiguis© (s’©tant aper§u que les Portugais,[. Essays Shopping? ] ils pensЁrent que ) ainsi que celle d'Єtre capable d'©voluer mЄme si paradoxalement c'est pour commettre des actes barbares l'instar des Europ©ens.(ils commencЁrent abandonner leur maniЁre ancienne pour suivre celle-ci.) LE PARADOXE : LES OCCIDENTAUX SERAIENT PLUS VIOLENTS QUE LES CANNIBALES INDIENS. Montaigne opЁre dans une seconde partie de son texte un retour vers l'occident chr©tien, celui de son siЁcle. Of Report? On notera cet ©gard le jeu sur les pronoms « je » et « nous » qui s'opposent au terme « les Cannibales » de la premiЁre ligne. Cesaire …? Sous la forme d'une anecdote assez longuement d©velopp©e il va ©voquer les pratiques des colonisateurs (ici les Portugais. Sample Of Report? On est l'©poque des grandes d©couvertes) afin d'amener le lecteur adopter un autre point de vue. Cheap The Media? Le r©cit de cette anecdote d©montre sans conteste que les Europ©ens ont une attitude beaucoup plus cruelle, inhumaine, barbare.

Sa d©monstration est renforc©e par un autre exemple pris en Europe mЄme (comme nous l’avons non seulement lu, mais vu de fra®che date, non entre des ennemis anciens, mais entre des voisins et concitoyens et, qui pis est, sous pr©texte de pi©t© et de religion). L'antithЁse « entre des voisins et concitoyens » et non pas vers des ennemis lointains renvoie aux premiЁres lignes du texte (contre les nations qui sont au-del de leurs montagnes » ) et prouve que les Europ©ens sont sup©rieurs dans la cruaut© ces peuples du Nouveau monde que l'on considЁre ici comme des barbares ( Je ne suis pas fўch© que nous soulignions l’horreur barbare qu’il y a dans une telle action, mais plutґt du fait que, jugeant bien de leurs fautes, nous soyons si aveugles l’©gard des nґtres.) Montaigne n'est pas le seul au XVI e siЁcle avoir ©voqu© la violence de ces guerres de religion ( cf Agrippa d'Aubign© le soulignera encore davantage dans Les Tragiques (1616)) cf fiche sur l' Humanisme . De fait, Montaigne amЁne habilement son lecteur partager sa r©flexion sur le fait que la barbarie est un vice tout aussi pr©sent chez les Europ©ens que chez les peuples sauvages. Sample Writing? Int©ressons-nous sa maniЁre de proc©der. LES MOYENS DE LA DEMONSTRATION : UNE PENSEE EN CHEMIN. UNE DEMARCHE INDUCTIVE : UN « ESSAI » Montaigne adopte un raisonnement inductif : c'est dire qu'il part d'exemples, de situations pour aboutir une conclusion g©n©rale.

Entre temps, il introduit des exemples historiques qui peuvent ©galement faire figure d'arguments d'autorit©. Essays On Internet? Ce proc©d© est courant la Renaissance : la r©f©rence aux auteurs antiques (Chrysippe et Z©non , chefs de l’©cole StoЇque), permet de montrer que le propos n'©mane pas que d'une seule personne mais qu'il trouve aussi sa source dans une tradition litt©raire. L’implication de celui qui r©fl©chit. Par ailleurs Montaigne s’implique dans son propos : les nombreuses occurrence du pronom « Je » atteste qu'il formule plusieurs endroits du texte une r©flexion personnelle (Je pense que, Je ne suis pas fўch© que ). Sample Letter? Ces passages explicites montrent le cheminement de la pens©e de l'auteur, ce qui est caract©ristique du genre de l'essai, inaugur© par Montaigne lui-mЄme. DES REGISTRES DIFFERENTS (PATHOS ET IRONIE)

Des tableaux frappants pour susciter l’©motion et l’indignation. Montaigne propose son lecteur une s©rie de tableaux d©crivant les actes commis d'une part par les Cannibales, d'autre part par les Portugais. 90? S'y ajoute ensuite la peinture des horreurs commises au cours des guerres de religion par les Europ©ens. Of Report Letter? Les proc©d©s d'accumulation ( d©chirer par des tortures et des supplices un corps ayant encore toute sa sensibilit©, le faire rґtir petit petit, le faire mordre et tuer), le champ lexical de la violence (enterrer jusqu’ la ceinture ; tirer sur le reste du corps force coups de traits ; les pendre ; tortures, supplices. Buy Research Online? ) donnent au texte une tonalit© path©tique, si ce n'est tragique. Tout en mЄme temps l’auteur des Essais emploie plusieurs reprises l'ironie pour provoquer une r©action chez le lecteur. Sample Of Report Writing Letter? Il prend en charge cette ironie (notons cette pr©sence du je ou du nous chaque fois). To Buy London? Nous pouvons donc bien appeler ces hommes barbares eu ©gard aux rЁgles de la raison, mais non pas eu ©gard nous, qui les surpassons en toute sorte de barbarie. Cette ironie, comme celle que l'on retrouvera par la suite chez Voltaire, n'est pas gratuite.

Elle atteste d'un r©el souci de l'auteur pour ce qui menace l'homme, savoir sa facult© engendrer de la violence et notamment l'©gard de ses semblables. Le texte est un appel regarder l'autre comme un semblable. Sample Of Report Writing? Les proc©d©s de comparaison sont nombreux dans sa d©monstration (plutґt du fait que, jugeant bien de leurs fautes, nous soyons si aveugles l’©gard des nґtres ; comme [le firent] nos ancЄtres ; il y a plus de barbarie manger un homme vivant qu’ le manger mort). Essay House London? Jean de L©ry, un autre humaniste qui a cґtoy© de prЁs ces Indiens du Br©sil en fera de mЄme dans son Histoire d'un voyage faict en la terre du Br©sil (1578 . Les cultures du pass©, celles du pr©sent sont sollicit©es part ©gales dans cette r©flexion. En mЄme temps Montaigne ne se place pas en juge sup©rieur des autres. Sample Of Report Writing Letter? L'usage du pronom « nous » est en cela particuliЁrement int©ressant puisqu'il n'exclut pas, Montaigne ne dit pas « vous », ni « les Occidentaux ». On Aime - Tim? Il s'implique aussi dans cette responsabilit© travers le « nous » (Nous soyons si aveugles l’©gard des nґtres). En v©ritable humaniste il s'engage dans la condamnation des pr©jug©s. Sample Writing Letter? Apprendre au lecteur se d©centrer, adopter une vision plus distanci©e, moins born©e c'est tout le travail du penseur humaniste (Je ne suis pas fўch© que nous soulignions l’horreur barbare qu’il y a dans une telle action et Nous pouvons donc bien appeler ces hommes barbares eu ©gard aux rЁgles de la raison, mais non pas eu ©gard nous, qui les surpassons en toute sorte de barbarie).

Cette le§on que nous propose ce texte c©lЁbre, d'une grande intelligence et d'une grande actualit© encore, annonce d'autres grands textes d'©crivains, Voltaire, Hugo et plus proche de nous R. Online The Media? Badinter, eux qui se sont pench©s sur les travers de l’humain pour mieux les combattre. Vous devez Єtre connect© pour pouvoir lire la suite. Vous voulez en savoir plus sur les enseignements du Bac L ? digiSchool vous prop. S’inscrire au Baccalaur©at Litt©raire en candidat libre est une ©tape franchir. Les cours de litt©rature de Terminale L repr©sentent une ©preuve au Baccalaur©at.

Le Baccalaur©at est un examen trЁs redout© par les lyc©ens. Of Report Letter? Entre r©visions et s.