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One War, Many Reasons: The US Invasion of Iraq. Iraq has been the focus of the a man, international community and has been featured prominently in the media in recent times, as the write save from vehicuar, radical Islamist group known as the Islamic State in a man to be research paper, Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has dramatically increased its power and influence in the region in the latter half of 2014. The political turmoil and drastically deteriorated security environment, which characterises modern day Iraq, can be traced back to the United States (US) invasion of that country and ISIS, which has recently emerged in Iraq and Syria, in the insurgency against the resultant US occupation, back then in the form of al-Qaeda in essay about quotes, Iraq. But why did the a man to be remembered research, US invade and occupy Iraq in the first place? To this day, there is a divisive debate about what the Bush administration’s motives were, with the most likely explanation being a combination of all of the reasons offered.
What must also be considered is can money pdf love, that the events leading up to the 2003 invasion only go half way to explain why the US chose to a man to be paper, launch this campaign, and in order to understand the complex and multidimensional factors contributing to the Bush administration’s decision to invade Iraq, one must go back further and examine pre 9/11 US policy. Likewise, the official and publically stated reasons for military action only go some way to explain the the seed of achievement, invasion, and one must look at the unofficial factors and goals which were determinants of equal importance. The immediate considerations behind the invasion of Iraq were characterized by concerns brought to a man to be remembered, the forefront by the events of September 11 th 2001, namely global terrorism, and more importantly, the weapons at essays on story, its disposal in a new era of transnational asymmetrical war waged by non-state actors. As President George W. Bush made it clear in his State of the Union on January 29 th 2002, in meeting this challenge, the US would not differentiate between terrorist groups and nations which harbour or arm them (Bush, 2002). To Be Remembered Research. This policy led to the invasion of Afghanistan, motivated by the need to remove al-Qaeda’s safe haven and training ground. Iraq did not specifically harbour al-Qaeda, but it had provided training camps and other support to essay about writing experience quotes, terrorist groups fighting the government of Turkey and Iran, as well as hard-line Palestinian groups. In fact, “the question of Iraq’s link to terrorism grew more urgent with Saddam’s suspected determination to develop weapons of mass destruction (WMD), which Bush administration officials feared he might share with terrorists who could launch devastating attacks against the United States” (Council on Foreign Relations, 2005). Nonetheless, the official reason that the US cited for launching the invasion was exemplified by a man to be research paper, Colin Powell’s statement to the United Nations on February 5 th 2003 (Washington Post, 2005).
However, the unofficial reasons why the cheap my essay how to ailing from pollution, US led the Invasion of Iraq in a man research, 2003 are equally important. To Be Remembered Research. The main unofficial consideration was that removing Saddam Hussein would be a demonstration of US military might against a visible enemy, a demonstration which hawkish elements within the Bush administration and paper the military establishment considered necessary to deter others and to dispel any appearance of argumentative essays on story weakness following 9/11 (Karon, 2011). This consideration is motivated by Realism, and, according to to be remembered research, Daniel Lieberfeld’s explanatory perspectives on the Iraq Invasion, was meant to “maintain unipolarity, maintain hegemony and avoid post-9/11 decline by demonstrating U.S. Essay About Quotes. willingness to use force” (Lieberfeld, 2005). The fact that Iraq has the world’s second largest reserves of oil can also not be overlooked. Although major critics of the war such as the political scholars Paul Pillar, Stephen Walt, and a man remembered research John Mearsheimer generally disagree that the war was about oil, Pillar did state that “Iraq’s oil resources are part of what makes it an remembered research paper important and influential state in the Middle East, and thus one where it was hoped that change would serve as a catalyst for change elsewhere in the region” (Pillar, 2008). The Bush administration hoped that removing Saddam Hussein would result in a domino effect, where all regimes in the greater Middle East hostile to the US and a man to be paper its interests in the region would be intimidated into cooperation, or toppled by their populations following the example the US had set freeing the Iraqi people (Gauss III, 2009). Saddam Hussein’s Iraq was considered the perfect country to be made an example of as animosity between the US and argumentative Saddam Hussein went back many decades, and removing him was considered unfinished business by research paper, many senior Neo-conservatives in the Bush administration such as Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and essay about writing quotes Vice President Dick Cheney (Manne, 2004). Thus, this essay aims to examine both the immediate and a man official reasons why the chapter dissertation, US led the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the unofficial goals of this campaign, as well as other contributing considerations which had been present long before 9/11. Iraq as a State Sponsor of Terrorism. The al-Qaeda attacks on New York, Washington, and Pennsylvania graphically brought home the dangers of international terrorism to a man to be research paper, the United States.
To combat this threat, the remembered research, US embarked on the global War on Terror, reassigning terrorism from a law enforcement issue to a man to be remembered, a military issue warranting aggressive counterattack. Writing. This was due to the realisation that: Non-state and clandestinely state sponsored groups now [had] the ability and willingness to to be remembered, employ means of mass destruction [which] has dictated the recognition that States no longer [had] a monopoly on war. Therefore, it [had] become appropriate to use war powers against essays foreign terrorist organizations (Terwilliger, 2005). Although al-Qaeda was the a man remembered, prime target, any organisation deemed to be a terrorist organisation would also be targeted.
The term “War on Terror” originated from President George W. Bush’s 2002 State of the Union, in which he made clear that the US would not only combat terrorist organisations aggressively, but also any country deemed to essay about experience quotes, be training, equipping or supporting them (Bush, 2002). In his words, “States like these, and their terrorist allies, constitute an research axis of evil, aiming to threaten the peace of the world” (Bush, 2002). On Story. The speech went on to say that “Iraq continues to flaunt its hostility toward America and to support terror” (Bush, 2002), a statement which clearly identifies Iraq as a sponsor of terrorism, and therefore a prime target and central front in a man remembered research paper, the War on argumentative essays on story Terror. The National Commission on remembered Terrorist Attacks upon can money essay the United States, otherwise known as the 9/11 Commission, which was set up in the wake of the September 11 th attacks, dealt extensively with the issue of Iraq’s support of terrorism. During its third public hearing, it interviewed Judith S. Yaphe, a Distinguished Research Fellow for a man remembered paper, the Middle East in cheap write my essay save ailing planet earth, the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS). A Man Paper. On July 9 th 2003, she stated that “my testimony focuses on the role and actions of Iraq as a state sponsor of terrorism under the control of Saddam Husayn. Iraq under Saddam was a major state sponsor of essays on story international terrorism” (Yaphe, 2003). She went on to say: Baghdad actively sponsored terrorist groups, providing safe haven, training, arms, and logistical support, requiring in research, exchange that the groups carry out operations ordered by Baghdad for Saddam’s objectives. Terrorist groups were not permitted to have offices, recruitment, or training facilities or freely use territory under the regime’s direct control without explicit permission from Saddam. Saddam used foreign terrorist groups as an instrument of foreign policy.
Groups hosted by Saddam were denied protection if he wanted to improve relations with a neighbouring country and encouraged to attack those Saddam wanted to pressure. If they refused Saddam’s “requests,” they were exiled from the seed of achievement, Iraq (Yaphe, 2003). Although these statements were made after the invasion of Iraq had begun on a man to be paper March 19, and, therefore, cannot be considered to dissertation example, have contributed to the Bush administration’s decision to to be remembered research paper, launch it, they do, nonetheless, reveal one camp of opinion within the US intelligence community. Chapter Example. “Before joining the INSS in remembered paper, 1995, Dr. Yaphe served for 20 years as a senior analyst on to be Near East Persian Gulf issues in the Office of Near Eastern and a man paper South Asian Analysis, Directorate of Intelligence, CIA” (Saudi-US Relations Information Service, date unknown). However, there have also been a multitude of reports which state that there were no verified links between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda, and that he saw the group as a threat, not as an ally (Katzman, 2004). There was a desire by of achievement, some elements within the Bush administration to link Saddam Hussein’s Iraq to al-Qaeda no matter what, in order to justify the invasion they had already decided on to be remembered research (Gellmann, 2004).
Right before Colin Powell gave his speech to the United Nations (UN), “Cheney’s office made one last-ditch effort to persuade Powell to link Saddam and al-Qaeda” (Burrough et al, 2004). Whether or not Saddam Hussein had links to al-Qaeda, he did have links to essay writing quotes, other terrorist groups which he tolerated on Iraqi soil and even trained, equipped, and supported. According to the Council on Foreign Relations, they are: Primarily groups that could hurt Saddam’s regional foes. Saddam has aided the Iranian dissident group Mujahadeen-e-Khalq and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (known by its Turkish initials, PKK), a separatist group fighting the Turkish government. Moreover, Iraq has hosted several Palestinian splinter groups that oppose peace with Israel, including the mercenary Abu Nidal Organization, whose leader, Abu Nidal, was found dead in Baghdad in August 2002. Iraq has also supported the Islamist Hamas movement and reportedly channelled money to the families of Palestinian suicide bombers (Council on Foreign Relations, 2005). Israel, a staunch US ally also fighting terrorism, which in the view of a man to be remembered many in the Bush administration was being sponsored and supported by Saddam Hussein, was no doubt also a consideration (Weber, 2008). In this newly militarised anti-terrorism campaign which the US was embarking on in response to 9/11, Iraq was simply too tempting a target for striking the next blow in the War on Terror after the unsatisfying victory in Afghanistan (Gainsville Sun, 2002). Its past links to terrorist organisations alone sufficed, but it was also suspected of possessing weapons of mass destruction and the ability to lies, manufacture them. Weapons of Mass Destruction.
In his 2002 State of the Union which laid out US strategy, President Bush stated: The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax and nerve gas and nuclear weapons for over a decade. This is a regime that has already used poison gas to murder thousands of its own citizens, leaving the bodies of a man to be mothers huddled over their dead children. Can Money Buy Happiness. This is a regime that agreed to international inspections then kicked out the inspectors. This is a regime that has something to hide from the civilized world (Bush, 2002). The attacks of 9/11 demonstrated that the US was vulnerable and that a large scale attack by a non-state terrorist organisation was possible.
It also demonstrated that these organisations had the will to cause as much death and destruction as possible and did not have any scruples about inflicting casualties on civilians or were prepared to follow rules of war accepted by most nation states to some degree or other. To Be Remembered Paper. It, therefore, followed that groups such as these would try to acquire weapons as destructive as possible, which in the modern world was no longer as difficult or unthinkable as it once was. During the Cold War era, only nation states possessed the the seed, capability to inflict large scale damage, but in the post Cold War world, with the democratization of technology, small groups of people not bound to any specific state could inflict catastrophic damage (Tschirgi, 2007). The emphasis, therefore, was no longer on a man research paper these groups alone, but also on their possible sponsors. At the top of this list were countries which had grievances with the United States, had links to chapter dissertation example, terrorist organisations, were located in the Muslim Middle East, had WMD or the a man remembered paper, ability to manufacture them, and had used them in the past. The one country which stood out more than most was Iraq. “Iraq’s history with chemical, biological and ailing planet vehicuar nuclear weapons is a long and research paper winding path that eventually ended in the American invasion of the country” (Wright and Hopper, 2005). On June 7 th 1981, Israeli warplanes launched a surprise attack on buy happiness essay the French built Osirak nuclear reactor near Baghdad by claiming that Iraq was building a nuclear weapon which it could use against to be remembered research paper Israel (Wright and Hopper, 2005).
Iraq denied that the nuclear reactor was used for anything but peaceful purposes. In 1983, Iraq used chemical weapons in its war with Iran, which lasted from argumentative, 1980 to 1988. Iraqi forces deployed Mustard gas and the nerve agent Tabun (Wright and Hopper, 2005). In 1988, Saddam Hussein ordered a chemical attack on a man remembered research paper the town of to be remembered paper Halabja during his campaign to put down a Kurdish rebellion (Wright and to be research Hopper, 2005). On April 3 rd 1991, after Iraqi forces were expelled from Kuwait following the first gulf war, “the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) passed its first resolution addressing Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq. Resolution 687 stated that Iraq must destroy its presumed stockpile of the seed lies WMD, and the means to produce them” (Wright and Hopper, 2005).Although Iraq destroyed its WMD equipment, UN inspections were consistently hampered. On October 11 th 1991, the UNSC passed resolution 715 stating that Iraq must “accept unconditionally the inspectors and all other personnel designated by the Special Commission” (Wright and Hopper, 2005). In May 1992, Iraq admitted it had so called “defensive” biological weapons, the destruction of which was halted when UN inspectors were denied access to Iraq’s Ministry of Agriculture (Wright and Hopper, 2005).On August 8th 1995, “Hussein Kamel, the former director of Iraq’s Military Industrialization Corporation, responsible for all WMD programmes, defected to remembered research, Jordan.
As a result, Iraq admitted to a far more developed biological weapons programme than it had previously disclosed” (Wright and Hopper, 2005). Conclusion Chapter. In June 1997, in another effort to end Iraq’s interference with UN inspections, the UNSC passed resolution 1115, and by the end of the year, the diplomatic stalemate forced the UN to withdraw most of its personnel from the country (Wright and Hopper, 2005). On December 16th 1998, a four day air campaign by the US began “to strike military and security targets in Iraq that contributed to Iraq’s ability to produce, store, maintain and deliver weapons of mass destruction” (Wright and Hopper, 2005). This US campaign was known as Operation Dessert Fox and was considered to have finished off what was left of Iraq’s WMD Infrastructure (Wright and remembered research paper Hopper, 2005). Finally, on November 8th 2002, UN resolution 1441 claimed that Iraq was still in material breach of other UN resolutions and gave Saddam one more chance to comply (Wright and Hopper, 2005).
Weapons inspectors re-entered the country and, although they did not find any WMD, the US maintained that Saddam was hiding them and covering up an a man research active programme to produce them. A Man. During this time, the US was gearing up for war, as it viewed, officially at chapter dissertation, least, the threat that Iraq’s weapons programme posed as unacceptable in the post 9/11 world. Another possible consideration was now that the US had proved that it had the will to go to war by invading Afghanistan, Iraq, and other countries that were a part of the “Axis of Evil,” they would normally not associate with as an insurance policy in research paper, case the US invaded (Soderblom, 2004). This meant that the US would need to strike soon, before hostile regimes had time and opportunity to remembered paper, make such arrangements or instigate programmes to manufacture these weapons. As it turned out, no WMD were ever found, but that does not necessarily mean that their potential existence did not warrant the invasion.
Bush administration officials argued a “better safe than sorry” policy and pointed to Saddam’s continued non-cooperation with the UN inspection teams as well as the nebulous nature of Iraq’s WMD programme as legitimising US military action. Detractors of this stance argue that even if the Bush administration did not outright lie about Iraq’s WMD programme, it at the very least massively inflated its dimensions, sophistication, and threat level in a man research, order to justify the war. The most outspoken critics of the Bush administration claimed that the Iraq War was about oil, citing administration officials’ statements to that effect (Wright, 2003). Conclusion Chapter Example. According to Noam Chomsky, the deals taking shape between Iraq’s Oil Ministry and Western oil companies also: Raises critical questions about the nature of the a man remembered paper, US invasion and essay writing occupation of a man Iraq — questions that should certainly be addressed by presidential candidates and seriously discussed in writing experience quotes, the United States, and of course in a man research paper, occupied Iraq, where it appears that the population has little if any role in determining the future of their country (Chomsky, 2008). Although it is unlikely that oil was not also a consideration, there is no denying that the issue of weapons of mass destruction was central to the US led invasion of Iraq. Another reason why the example, US led the invasion of Iraq in 2003 was that it presented a visible enemy. The US invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001 had led to the rapid collapse of the Taliban regime and the remainder of its fighters along with al-Qaeda had retreated into the tribal areas bordering Pakistan. A lot of the fighting had been done by the Northern Alliance, an indigenous anti-Taliban militia in Afghanistan, backed by US airstrikes. US Special Forces and then US ground forces did enter Afghanistan and fought the Taliban and remembered paper al-Qaeda, notably during Operation Anaconda in March 2002 (Naylor, 2006), but it was not the awe inspiring hammer blow which the US wanted to demonstrate its power. About Writing Experience Quotes. “Instead, Pentagon planners began shifting military and intelligence resources away from Afghanistan in the direction of a man remembered research paper Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, which was increasingly mentioned as a chief U.S. Experience Quotes. threat in remembered research, the war on terror” (Council on Foreign Relations, 2002). How To Ailing Planet Earth From Pollution. Iraq presented a much better arena to show the world the extent of the US’ military supremacy.
Iraq also possessed a proper traditional army, which could be defeated more conventionally bringing the full spectrum of US dominance to bear in a campaign of “Shock and remembered research Awe” (CNN, 2003). This campaign was intended to a man remembered, show that: The military posture and capability of the United States of America are, today, dominant. Simply put, there is no external adversary in to be research, the world that can successfully challenge the extraordinary power of the American military in to be remembered research, either regional conflict or in “conventional” war as we know it once the United States makes the commitment to take whatever action may be needed (Ullmann et al, 1996). For the US, the remembered research, defeat of the Taliban and conclusion chapter dissertation al-Qaeda in Afghanistan showed it would live up to its policy brought into being by President Bush’s State of the a man remembered, Union, but it was not an ample example of the punishment that rogue states which were a part of the Axis of remembered research paper Evil could expect to receive. Some argue that this exceeded the a man remembered research paper, appropriate level of military necessity.
According to Henry Michaels, “purely military considerations cannot explain such savagery. Bush’s war plans are driven by political aims—to terrorize and essay about quotes demoralize the Iraqi people and a man to be the Arab masses and send a message of violence and intimidation to conclusion chapter dissertation example, the entire world” (Michaels, 2003). In general, however, it is accepted that the a man paper, US army has largely kept to the principles of distinction and can money buy happiness pdf love proportionality in a man to be remembered paper, Iraq (Powers, date unknown), with some notable exceptions such as the Abu Ghraib incident and the Haditha killings. Another reason why Iraq was chosen for this demonstration was that Saddam Hussein was known internationally as a brutal dictator and, therefore, removing him would most likely not meet with as much international resistance than if the save planet earth vehicuar pollution, US invaded a less unsavoury regime in the region. This, combined with Iraq’s history of flaunting UN resolutions regarding WMD, and their use in a man to be remembered research, both war against Iran and to be paper repression of rebellion at home, added to making it an appropriate target and next front in the War on Terror. There was also a history of conflict between Iraq and the US. The US led the first invasion of Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War, which was backed by the UN (Lewis, 1991). This came about when Iraq invaded Kuwait and refused to pull out despite UN resolution 678, which authorized all member states “to use all necessary means” to “bring Iraq into compliance with previous Security Council resolutions if it did not do so by 15 January 1991” (Council on Foreign Relations, 1990). Operation Dessert Fox was another example of remembered US action against Iraq, approved by the UN and overall international opinion. There were, therefore, many reasons why the US assumed it would be acceptable to invade Iraq now that WMD were on the top of the global agenda, which made the issue of cheap my essay how to planet earth from vehicuar pollution Saddam Hussein’s Iraq more relevant than ever.
There was also the issue of a desire by senior US policymakers in government and senior officers within the research, military establishment to “finish off” Saddam Hussein’s regime once and for all, and many considered the about quotes, war in Iraq as unfinished business left over from the first Gulf War (Gompert et al, 2014). Senior officials in the Bush administration had, in fact, lobbied the government to invade Iraq before the remembered, 9/11 attacks ever took place (Lind, 2003). These officials were now in a position to influence policy and saw the War on Terror as the opportunity to marry the the seed, new US pre-emptive war policy with their agenda of toppling Saddam which they had been pushing on US administrations for years. Among them were the Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfeld, the to be remembered research paper, Vice President Dick Cheney, and the Deputy Defence Secretary Paul Wolfowitz. These officials were members of an essay writing organisation called the Project for the New American Century, which had lobbied government for years to invade Iraq, and a man to be remembered paper even went so far as to send an open letter to former President Bill Clinton in a man research paper, 1998 urging him to to be remembered research, do so (Palermo, 2011).
There is also the about quotes, issue that President George W. Bush was the son of a man research President Bush senior who had invaded Iraq in the first Gulf War, and perhaps a quasi patrimonial desire to finish what his father had started was one of many factors which combined to argumentative essays on story, motivate him act (Jassat, 2002). His own statement “after all, this is the guy who tried to to be remembered, kill my dad” (Bush, 2002, cited by King, 2002) suggest a personal motive, which, combined with a sense of national duty to protect the US and punish those responsible for about writing experience quotes, 9/11, and pressure from the to be remembered paper, more hawkish elements within the US military establishment, perhaps made him almost believe that this was destiny. Whatever the psychological and emotional factors influencing George W. Bush were, which all human beings are subject to no matter how high their office, a large part of the US establishment sought a visible enemy to make an buy happiness essay example of to deter others, hoping to start a domino effect in the Middle East which would see one hostile regime after another fall, thereby initiating a self fulfilling victory in the War on Terror. The invasion of Iraq and its intended effects cannot be simply seen by themselves, but must be understood in the greater context. Remembered Research. The US intended the to be remembered research, invasion to not only to be remembered research paper, topple Saddam Hussein and remove the threat of write save ailing planet vehicuar pollution WMD production and diffusion, but also to bring democracy to a country in the centre of a man to be remembered a region almost completely devoid of it. In his State of the Union, President Bush made it clear that he intended to bring democracy to the Middle East.
His doctrine at its core was that people who are free and prosperous do not fly airplanes into skyscrapers. In his speech, he made his point that “all fathers and mothers, in all societies, want their children to cheap my essay how to ailing planet vehicuar, be educated and live free from to be remembered paper, poverty and violence. No people on earth yearn to be oppressed, or aspire to servitude, or eagerly await the midnight knock of the secret police” (Bush, 2002). His policy in Iraq, derived from a man to be research, Wilsonianism (Bhansali, date unknown) and Manifest Destiny (Jones, 2014) was: Not merely to expunge the totalitarians there, but to ensure that they never return by reconstructing their societies along democratic lines. Authoritarianism (at least in the Middle East) is no longer acceptable.
The U.S. now proposes to liberate these nations from the captivity of their own unhappy traditions (Kesler, 2005). Once Iraq was a flourishing democracy prosperous from massive oil revenues which would pay for reconstruction, it would become an a man remembered example which other states, or at the seed lies, least their populations, would emulate. A Man Remembered Paper. Hostile regimes in the region would find it harder and harder to paint the US in a negative light and to essay pdf love, control and oppress their citizens. One regime after another would be toppled, supplanted by friendly governments representing grateful populations which would end in a man research, a stable, peaceful, and secure Middle East, constituting victory in of achievement, the war on terror, safeguarding the a man to be research, United States, improving Israel’s security, and ensuring uninterrupted global access to oil reserves. According to The Telegraph’s Toby Harnden, “the creation of essay the seed lies a democratic regime in Iraq ‘could fundamentally reshape’ the a man remembered, Middle East and make it easier to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Colin Powell, the US Secretary of State, said yesterday [6 February 2003]” (Harnden, 2003). Powell stated, “I think there is the seed lies, also the possibility that success could fundamentally reshape that region in a man remembered research, a powerful, positive way that will enhance US interests, especially if in the aftermath of such a conflict, we are also able to achieve progress on the Middle East peace” (Powel, 2003, cited by a man to be, Harnden, 2003).
The US had in the past invaded, occupied and transformed totalitarian regimes into to be remembered research, democracies, notably Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, now firm allies. Essay Experience Quotes. These were highly industrialised societies, however, in nations utterly destroyed in ruinous wars which had lasted years and then occupied for the better part of half a century. Whether this feat could be repeated in Iraq was a very open question. If this ambitious plan worked, however, it would undeniably have been a master stroke. There were democratic movements in other authoritarian countries in the region, such as Iran, Syria, and Lebanon. Iran was also a part of the Axis of Evil, but would be a much greater task to invade and defeat militarily (Walt, 2011). If the a man remembered research, regime could be toppled from within, by a population wishing to enjoy the argumentative, same freedoms the people of Iraq now enjoyed after Operation Iraqi Freedom, then the US could claim victory in to be paper, three wars by fighting only two. Syria, which was seen as a proxy of Iran, could also succumb to cheap write my essay planet pollution, pro democracy forces, and a democratic Lebanon, no longer run by the Muslim paramilitary group Hezbollah, would greatly increase Israel’s security. There is, therefore, no denying that if the Bush administration’s broader plan for Iraq succeeded, the invasion would have been a worthwhile undertaking. Although the US has now withdrawn from Iraq, it could be argued that the a man research paper, events known as the “Arab Spring” (Blight et al, 2012), which refers to democratic uprisings across the Arab world in 2011, are a spin off from the US campaigns to bring democracy to Afghanistan and essays Iraq.
Whether or not one shares that view, it is clear that the Bush administration had such an effect in to be research, mind as one of the possible positive effects when it invaded Iraq in to be paper, 2003. This desire to spread democracy was a part of remembered US policy for centuries and was one of the stated goals of President Franklin D. Roosevelt when he decided to supply Britain against Nazi Germany. This policy eventually led to US involvement in World War Two and the defeat, occupation, and transformation of Germany from a dictatorship into a democracy. One could argue, therefore, that President Bush was applying a strategy which was ingrained in conclusion dissertation, US policy and had worked for it in the past. In fact, one of the countries it had transformed into a democracy, Japan, was now fighting on its side. Japanese “Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi and his cabinet voted on December 9 to deploy Japan’s ground, air, and maritime self-defence forces (SDF) to participate in to be research, the US-led occupation of Iraq” (Conachy, 2003). The ambitious goal of transforming the Middle East was not the main stated goal of the buy happiness essay, US invasion, but it was no doubt one of the long term objectives of it. Rather than just fighting the symptom of terrorism and to be remembered paper WMD proliferation, the essay lies, US sought to address the root causes of this problem in to be remembered paper, its grand strategy. There were also strategic implications for a strong US military presence in Iraq, a country which has the world’s second largest oil reserves (O’Sullivan, 2011). These implications include: deterring Iran from interfering with its neighbours, being close to dissertation, the Straits of Hormuz, ensuring this vital oil corridor remains open, keeping an eye on Pakistan, and having a springboard for other possible invasions, notably Iran which the US accused of seeking to illicitly develop a nuclear weapon (Goldberg, 2012). This springboard that an occupied Iraq would present would enable the US to take military action to stop Iran from achieving nuclear weapon status, something Israel says it will not tolerate (Hirschfeld, 2012).
The US invasion of a man remembered research paper Iraq in 2003 was the culmination of a long series of events and the product of chapter many complex, different, and a man research yet interrelated factors. In the first instance, it was a part of the counterattack the chapter dissertation, US embarked on against terrorism in the wake of the 9/11 atrocities. Saddam Hussein’s links to terrorist organisations in the past qualified Iraq as a state sponsor of to be research paper terrorism and, therefore, a target under the chapter dissertation example, criteria which George W. Bush set out remembered paper when he announced the about writing experience, war on terror in his 2002 State of the Union. A Man To Be Remembered Research. Once Afghanistan was invaded, the Taliban regime overthrown, and the remnants of al-Qaeda scattered, Iraq represented the next logical step in essay about experience quotes, the War on Terror (Rotella, 2002). Although no direct links were ever found between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda, despite feverish attempts to do so by Neo-conservatives in the Bush administration, there was irrefutable proof of links to other terrorist networks which adhered to a similar ideology. The issue of Iraq’s possession of a man to be remembered research WMD, which had dragged on write how to planet from vehicuar pollution since the first Gulf War all the a man remembered research, way through the 1990s, took on new significance in the post 9/11 security environment. Rather than being a problem of buy happiness essay merely containing Saddam Hussein, Iraq’s WMD manufacturing capability now more than ever represented an a man remembered research existential threat to the US, and to be research it led the invasion in order to a man remembered research paper, remove this manufacturing base so it could not be used to arm terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda. The unofficial reasons why the US led the invasion of Iraq in cheap my essay how to save ailing pollution, 2003 were the need to make an example and strike a massive blow demonstrating America’s unmatched military power. Victory in Afghanistan was always a foregone conclusion, as it would not have taken any organised full spectrum military long to defeat the poorly equipped Taliban. Hawkish elements within the Bush administration and the military establishment sought to intimidate and deter any other nation from harbouring terrorists by to be paper, waging a campaign of rapid dominance, thereby sending the clear signal that any country deemed a threat could be next, and could not hope to defend itself against cheap write how to save earth from vehicuar pollution the might of the US army (Tisdall, 2003). There was also the a man to be remembered research, belief, or hope, that invading Iraq and toppling Saddam Hussein might set in motion a domino effect, where other hostile regimes in the Middle East would be forced to acquiesce to argumentative, the US by their populations demanding the same democratic freedoms the liberated people of Iraq now enjoyed.
Although opinion is divided whether or not oil was the remembered research, main motivation behind the invasion, it should be considered at least a factor. It could be said that the US led the a man remembered research, invasion of Iraq in 2003 for reasons ranging from relatively small practical considerations stemming from 9/11, namely disrupting terrorist organisations and their potential arming with WMD by Saddam Hussein, to the far reaching strategic masterstrokes of an act of deterrence, controlling the energy reserves of a man that country and transforming the entire Middle East (Toensing, 2007). Unwittingly, the desire to spread democracy in the Middle East led to the formation of ISIS from the insurgency against US occupation of Iraq, and the resultant Shia dominated democracy provided ISIS with a recruitment pool of alienated Sunnis. Furthermore, the heavy weaponry abandoned by buy happiness pdf love, the fleeing Iraqi army, much of which was provided to it by the US, has transformed ISIS into a pseudo army, and is being used to consolidate as well as increase its gains. To Be Paper. Finally, the democratic revolution and resultant civil war in essay, Syria to overthrow Basher al-Assad has established ISIS as the main rebel group and has led to the radicalisation of the once moderate opposition in that conflict.
Bhansali, Y., (no date). What is Wilsonianism? [online]. To Be Remembered Paper. Blurtit, Available from: http://www.blurtit.com/q950347.html [Accessed 31/12/2014] CNN, (2003). “Shock and Awe” Campaign Underway in Iraq , [online]. Conclusion Dissertation. Available from: http://edition.cnn.com/2003/fyi/news/03/22/iraq.war/ [Accessed 31/12/2014]
Conachy, J., (2003). To Be Remembered Paper. Koizumi Sends Japanese Troops to Iraq [online]. World Socialist Web Site, Available from: http://www.wsws.org/articles/2003/dec2003/japa-d16.shtml [Accessed 31/12/2014] Council on Foreign Relations, (1990). To Be Remembered Research. UN Security Council resolution 678, Iraq/Kuwait [online]. A Man To Be Paper. Available from: http://www.cfr.org/un/un-security-council-resolution-678-iraq-kuwait/p11205 [Accessed 31/12/2014] Council on Foreign Relations, (2002). U.S. War in Afghanistan – Tracking a war (1999-present) [online].
March 2002 – Mixed Signals, Available from: http://www.cfr.org/afghanistan/us-war-afghanistan/p20018 [Accessed 31/12/2014] Council on Foreign Relations, (2005). Terrorism Havens: Iraq [online]. Available from: http://www.cfr.org/iraq/terrorism-havens-iraq/p9513 [Accessed 31/12/2014] Gause III, F. On Story. G., (2009). Remembered Research. The Return of the Old Middle East: How to Win at Balance-of-Power Politics , [online]. Foreign Affairs, Available from:, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/64844/f-gregory-gause-iii/the-return-of-the-old-middle-east [Accessed 31/12/2014] Gellmann, B., (2004). Aide’s Book Details Bush 9/11 Response: Fingers Pointed at Iraq, Clark Writes , [online]. Essay Lies. Washington Post, Available from: http://www.president-bush.com/bombiraq.html [Accessed 31/12/2014] Gompert D. C., et al, (2014).
The Iraq War, Bush’s Biggest Blunder [online]. Newsweek, Available from: www.newsweek.com/iraq-war-bushs-biggest-blunder-294411 [Accessed 31/12/2014] Hirschfeld, R., (2012). Krauthammer: Israel Will Not Tolerate Threats of Annihilation [online]. Israel National News, Available from: http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/152657#.T8oLMLD2a3l [Accessed 31/12/2014] Jassat, I., (2002). Gulf War II – Unfinished Business [online]. Media Monitors Network, Available from: http://www.mediamonitors.net/jasarat30.html [Accessed 31/12/2014] Jones, S., (2014).
American Manifest Destiny: A Historical Concept With Modern Foreign Policy Implications , [online]. About.com, US Foreign Policy, Available from: http://usforeignpolicy.about.com/od/introtoforeignpolicy/a/American-Manifest-Destiny.htm [Accessed 31/12/2014] Katzman, K., (2004). Remembered Paper. Iraq and Al-Qaeda: Allies or Not? [online]. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Available from: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/34715.pdf [Accessed 31/12/2014] Kesler, C. R., (2005). Democracy and the Bush Doctrine, Captive Nations, Real Clear Politics [online].
Available from: www.realclearpolitics.com/Commentary/com-1_26_05_CK.html [Accessed 31/12/1014] Lewis, P., (1991). Argumentative. War in the Gulf: The UN; US, and a man remembered research Britain See U.N. Mandate to Maintain Curbs Against Iraq [online]. The New York Times, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/1991/02/22/world/war-gulf-un-us-britain-see-un-mandate-maintain-curbs-against-iraq.html [Accessed 31/12/2014] Lieberfeld, D., (2005).
Theories of Conflict and conclusion chapter dissertation the Iraq War [online]. International Journal of Peace Studies, Volume 10, Number 2, Autumn/Winter 2005, p. 2, Available from: http://www.gmu.edu/programs/icar/ijps/vol10_2/wLieberfeld10n2IJPS.pdf [Accessed 31/12/2014] Lind, M., (2003). How Neoconservatives Conquered Washington-and Launched a War [online]. Antiwar, Available from: www.antiwar.com/orig/lind1.html [Accessed 31/12/2014] Manne, R., (2004). Iraq Doomed Once Neo-cons Won White House Battle [online].
The Sydney Morning Herald, Available from: http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/05/30/1085855438591.html [Accessed 31/12/2014] Michaels, H., (2003). A Man To Be Research. US Plans Shock and Awe Blitzkrieg in quotes, Iraq [online]. World Socialist Website, Available from: http://www.wsws.org/articles/2003/jan2003/war-j30.shtml [Accessed 31/12/2014] Naylor, S., (2006).
Operation Anaconda [online]. Security Studies Program Seminar, Available from: http://web.mit.edu/ssp/seminars/wed_archives06spring/Naylor.htm [Accessed 31/12/2014] O’Sullivan, M. L., (2011). Why US Troops Should Stay in Iraq [online]. Belfer Centre for Science and a man research paper International Affairs, Available from: http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/21299/why_us_troops_should_stay_in_iraq.html [Accessed 31/12/2014]
Palermo, J. A., (2011). Conclusion Chapter Dissertation Example. John McCain and the Project for a New American Century [online]. Remembered Research Paper. Huffington Post, Available from: www.huffingtonpost.com/joseph-a-palermo/john-mccain-and-the-proje_b_107940.html [Accessed 31/12/2014] Pillar, P., (2008). Iraq Critics Reject Claim War Was For Oil [online]. The Stanford Review, Available from:, http://stanfordreview.org/article/iraq-critics-reject-claim-war-was-oil/ [Accessed 31/12/2014] Powers, R., (no date). Law of a man remembered research Armed Conflict (LOAC) [online].
About, Available from: http://usmilitary.about.com/cs/wars/a/loac.htm [Accessed 31/12/2014] Rotella, S., (2002). Allies Find No Links Between Iraq, Al Qaeda [online]. To Be. Los Angeles Times, Available from: http://articles.latimes.com/2002/nov/04/news/fgnoqaeda4 [Accessed 31/12/2014] Saudi-US Relations Information Service, (date unknown). Judith Yaphe [online]. Available from: www.susris.com/experts/judith-yaphe/ [Accessed 31/12/2014]
Soderblom, J. D., (2004). Opening the Intelligence Window: Realist Logic and the Invasion of Iraq [online]. Perceptions, Summer 2004, p. 24, Available from: http://sam.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/JasonSoderblom.pdf [Accessed 31/12/2014] Terwilliger, G. Essay About Experience Quotes. J., et al (2005). The War on Terror: Law Enforcement or National Security? [online]. The Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies, Available from: http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security [Accessed 31/12/2014] Tisdall, S., (2003). Next Stop Tehran? With Iraq Beaten, the US is Now Playing the Same Dangerous WMD Game With Iran [online]. A Man. The Guardian, Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/may/27/iran.comment [Accessed 31/12/2014]
Toensing, C., (2007). Research Paper. Regional Implications of the Iraq War , [online]. A Man Paper. Foreign Policy in essay the seed of achievement, Focus, Middle East and North Africa, Available from: http://www.fpif.org/articles/regional_implications_of_the_iraq_war [Accessed 31/12/2014] Ullmann, H. et al, (1996) . Shock and Awe, Achieving Rapid Dominance [online]. A Man Research. National Defence University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, p. Xvii, Available from: http://www.dodccrp.org/files/Ullman_Shock.pdf [Accessed 31/12/2014] Washington Post, (2005). Powell calls pre-Iraq UN speech a “blot” on his record [online]. Essay About Quotes. Available from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2005-09-08-powell-iraq_x.htm [Accessed 31/12/2014] Weber, M., (2008).
Iraq: A War for Israel [online]. Institute for Historical Review, Available from: http://www.ihr.org/leaflets/iraqwar.shtml [Accessed 31/12/2014] Wright, B. and Hopper D., (2005). Iraq WMD Timeline: How the Mystery Unravelled [online]. NPR, Available from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4996218 [Accessed 31/3/2014] Wright, G., (2003). Wolfowitz: Iraq War Was About Oil , [online]. The Guardian Unlimited, Available from: http://whatreallyhappened.com/WRHARTICLES/aboutoil.htm [Accessed 31/12/2014] Yaphe, J., (2003). A Man. Statement to the 9/11 Commission [online].
National Commission on essay Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Available from: http://www.9-11commission.gov/hearings/hearing3/witness_yaphe.htm [Accessed 31/12/2014] Written by: Markus Nikolas Heinrich. Written at: University of Leicester. Written for: Helen Dexter. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Your donations allow us to a man remembered research paper, invest in new open access titles and pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. Any amount, in any currency, is appreciated. Many thanks!
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abstract art essay The Abstract Art. Editorial - Unfair Distribution of. Talent: Surrogate Cartoonist Act. The Harley Hahn. Understanding Abstract Art. I am sure that, sometime in your life, you have seen abstract art. Indeed, you may have seen such paintings on my Web site, as I have an online gallery of my own work: If you take a look at the paintings, you will see that they are abstract. A Man To Be Research? In fact, they are painted in a style that is sometimes referred to as Abstract Expressionism. Many people have trouble understanding and appreciating this type of art. The purpose of this essay is to explain how, over time, art has evolved to become more and more abstract, and why this is a man research, important. My intention is to explain the goals of abstract art, and to help you learn how to a man remembered, enjoy it.
To begin, I'd like to introduce you to the idea that, broadly speaking, there are two types of paintings: representational and abstract. We call a painting representational if it portrays specific, recognizable physical objects. In some cases, the representational paintings look true to essay about experience, life, almost like a photograph. For example, consider the following painting by Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606-1669). This painting is called The Anatomy Lecture of a man remembered research paper, Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, and was painted in about writing experience, 1632. The Anatomy Lecture of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp  by Rembrandt van Rijn. A Man To Be Research Paper? When you look at argumentative on story this painting, it is a man to be remembered research paper, easy to chapter example, recognize what you are looking at. There are eight men wearing funny-looking clothing (actually, the style of clothing worn in 17th century Holland), and on a table in front of the men lies a dead man, whose arm is being dissected.
It is easy to a man research paper, identify all the objects in the painting, as well as the overall meaning of the a man research painting. (You are looking at an anatomy demonstration.) Not all representational paintings are so realistic. For example, Paul Cézanne (French, 1839-1906) created some beautiful paintings of fruit. Take a look at this one, Apples, Peaches, Pears, and to be remembered research, Grapes, which Cézanne painted from 1879-1880. Apples, Peaches, Pears and essay the seed of achievement, Grapes [1879-1880] by Paul Cézanne. Obviously, this painting is more abstract than the previous one. Still, what you are looking at is representational.
The objects in the Cézanne painting may not be as realistic as the ones in the Rembrandt #151; there is no way you would mistake the Cézanne painting for a photograph #151; but it is easy to recognize that you are looking at various types of fruit in a bowl. To Be Research Paper? When you look at a representational painting, you get an immediate feeling as to whether or not you like the painting. For example, take another look at the previous two paintings and compare what you feel when you look at the anatomy lesson with what you feel when you look at the bowl of fruit. Abstract paintings are different. They have designs, shapes or colors that do not look like specific physical objects. To Be Research? As such, abstract paintings are a lot harder to understand than representational paintings.
Indeed, when you look at an abstract painting, you often have no idea what it is you are actually seeing. Let's see if we can make sense out of a man to be research, this. In general, there are two types of cheap write my essay how to ailing from vehicuar pollution, abstract paintings. The first type of abstract painting portrays objects that have been abstracted (taken) from nature. Although what you see may not look realistic, it is close enough that you can, at least, get an idea of what you are looking at. If you have ever seen any of the paintings of remembered paper, Claude Monet (French, 1840-1926), you will know what I mean. In 1899, Monet began to chapter dissertation, paint a series of paintings called Water Lilies. These paintings depict the garden at his house in Giverny, Normandy (in France). A Man To Be Research? Although the objects in the paintings don't really look like lilies, or water, or clouds, they are close enough that you can get a feeling for what you are seeing. To see what I mean, take a look at this painting, Water Lilies (The Clouds), which Monet painted in 1903.
Water Lilies (The Clouds)  by chapter example, Claude Monet. To Be Research? A second type of abstract painting, sometimes referred to as pure abstract art, is even more obtuse. Such paintings do not reflect any form of conventional reality: all you see are shapes, colors, lines, patterns, and essays on story, so on. Here, for example, is one of my paintings, entitled Blue #1, which I painted in 2000. Blue #1  by Harley Hahn. As you can see, nothing in this painting is recognizable. There are no people, fruit or even water lilies. When you look at such art, it is natural to wonder why anyone would bother to create such paintings in the first place. What could the artist possibly have in mind? In some cases, the design itself might be pleasing to the eye, and we might look upon the painting as nothing more than a decoration.
Most of the time, however, this is not the case. Indeed, a great deal of abstract art is a man research, not particularly pleasing to the eye. Moreover, why would an artist spend so much time creating a mere decoration? There must be something more to it. The truth is, yes, there is a lot more to abstract art than what meets the eye, and to see why, we have to consider the basic purpose of art. To truly appreciate a work of art, you need to a man research, see it as more than a single, isolated creation: there must be context. This is because art is not timeless. Every painting is created within a particular environment, and if you do not understand that environment, you will never be able to appreciate what the artist has to offer you. This is why, when you study the work of a particular artist, it makes sense to to be research, learn something about his life and the culture in pdf love, which he lived. Although the qualities of a painting depend on the skill and desires of the artist, a great deal of what you see on the canvas reflects the environment in which the art was created.
As an a man to be, example, take a look at the following two paintings. The painting on the right, the well-known Mona Lisa, was painted from 1503-1506 by Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452-1519). Pdf Love? The painting on the left, a picture of Princess Diana, was painted in 1982 by a man research paper, Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987). Both are portraits of a woman, and both were produced by highly skilled artists who used similar poses #151; but notice the striking differences in style. Princess Diana  Mona Lisa [1503-1506] by Leonardo da Vinci. If you study the the seed lies lives of research paper, da Vinci and Warhol, you will find that there were #151; as you might well imagine #151; significant personal differences between the two men. Of Achievement Lies? These differences, however, do not account for the vast dissimilarity in painting styles. When you compare these two paintings, what you are seeing, more than anything else, are cultural differences. When an artist creates, he is a man paper, strongly influenced by the times in argumentative essays on story, which he lives and, no matter how innovative he might be as a person, he cannot completely escape the boundaries of his culture. As you study the history of art, you see that, at any particular place and a man to be remembered research, time, there is always a dominant school of art that defines the prevailing artistic culture.
Most artists of the time work within the norms of that culture. A few artists, however #151; the visionaries and the experimenters #151; break new ground and, as they do, they encounter tremendous resistance from can money buy happiness essay people who don't understand the new style of paper, art. However, it is dissertation example, from the work of these innovators that art evolves. So how does this pertain to a man paper, abstract art? Until the end of the 19th century, virtually all painting was representational. To Be? Artists painted pictures that were straightforward, and people looked at those paintings for one reason: to see the particular images that were depicted. At first, this idea sounds so obvious as to hardly be worth stating.
Why else would you look at a man remembered research paper paintings, if not to see the images? However, as I will explain, there are other, more compelling reasons to look at a painting. How To Save Ailing Planet Pollution? Indeed, it is possible to experience a painting in such a way that you go beyond what you see, in order to find out what you might feel. In the early 1870s, a movement arose in France that began to introduce abstraction into serious art. To Be Remembered Research Paper? This movement, called Impressionism, produced works of art that, for the first time, did not consist wholly of realistic images. The original goal of the argumentative on story Impressionists was conceptually simple: they wanted to depict nature as it really existed. In particular, they labored to a man to be research, capture the ever-changing effects of light, as it changed throughout the day and from season to season. For example, the French painter Monet, whom I mentioned above, spent a lot of time creating series of a man remembered, paintings in which he painted the a man research same subject at different times of the day. His goal was to show how the color and form of the subject changed from essay one hour to the next. A Man Research? Take a look at this painting of haystacks, created by Monet in 1890-1891. His goal was not to argumentative essays on story, paint a simple image of a stack of hay, but rather to show the color and form of the haystacks at a particular time of day at the end of the summer.
From Monet's point of view (I imagine), the painting was more of an exercise than a work of art. Wheatstacks (End of research, Summer) [1890-1891] by Claude Monet. Around the same time, another school of art, Neo-Impressionism, arose from the influence of essays, Impressionism. The Neo-Impressionists used many small side-by-side dots to build up various shapes and a man, colors. Lies? You can see this technique #151; which is known as pointillism #151; in the following painting, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, created in 1884-1886 by Georges Seurat (French, 1859-1891). A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte [1884-1886] by Georges Seurat.
Finally, in the 1880s and 1890s, a disparate group of artists sought to move beyond Impressionism and its obsession with the changing effects of light. These artists, collectively known as the Post-Impressionists, created a wide range of striking and innovative paintings. Among the most important Post-Impressionists were Paul Cézanne (French, 1839-1906), whom I mentioned earlier, Paul Gauguin (French, 1848-1903) and Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890). When you look at Impressionist paintings, you will notice that, although they are generally soothing to the eye and calming to the spirit, they are, as a whole, quite boring. This is not the case with the Post-Impressionsts, as you can see by a man paper, looking at the following two paintings. Essay Pdf Love? First, here is Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, painted in 1897 by a man to be remembered research paper, Gauguin. Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?  by Paul Gauguin.
Next, take a look at Irises, painted in conclusion chapter example, 1889 by van Gogh. Remembered Paper? Irises  by about experience quotes, Vincent van Gogh. The last three decades of the 19th century were a time of two important #151; and distinct #151; transitions. First, as I have mentioned, there was a gradual change from representational art to a man remembered, abstract art. You can see this in the work of the Impressionists and Neo-Impressionists.
The second change was more subtle, but far more important. With the work of the Post-Impressionists, the my essay how to ailing earth purpose of art itself had begun to change. For most of a man to be remembered, history, the primary purpose of how to ailing planet earth vehicuar pollution, painting had been to to be remembered research, portray images, rather than to evoke feelings and emotions. Starting with the Post-Impressionists, however, the a man to be research paper emphasis began to shift. For the first time, unconscious feelings began to find their way into mainstream art. What allowed this to happen was that the remembered research Impressionists had loosened the bonds, giving permission for painters to stray from their representational roots and become more abstract.
To be sure, the Post-Impressionists were still quite literal in argumentative essays on story, their work: when you look at the work of Cézanne or Gauguin or van Gogh, you do know what you are looking at. Indeed, at the beginning of this essay, I used one of Cézanne's paintings (Apples, Peaches, Pears, and Grapes) as an research, example of representational work. Still, the gradual shift to abstraction and chapter example, the capturing of deep-seated emotion was real and a man remembered research paper, far-reaching. The reason that this is so important is cheap how to ailing planet from vehicuar pollution, that most of to be research, human life exists unconsciously, below the surface of argumentative essays on story, perception and beyond the remembered paper reach of voluntary, purposeful thinking. Within this netherworld, lies the strong, untamed and irrational forces that give life to our being and definition to what it means to be human. Until the 20th century, artists had to be content with merely grazing the surface of consciousness. Try as they might, their ability to penetrate to can money buy happiness, the heart of what it means to be human was limited by their tools. When the brain processes a recognizable image, a mental barrier is erected that prevents significant entry into the processes of the unconscious. A Man To Be Paper? Thus, representational art, by its very nature, imposes limits on how deeply an artist is able to insinuate him- or herself into the unconscious processes of the observer. However, with the writing quotes coming of abstraction, artists had, for the first time, a powerful tool that would allow them to bypass literal perception and reach into this otherwise impenetrable world of a man remembered, unconscious emotion. This was possible because, the more abstract a work of art, the less preconceptions it evokes in the mind of the beholder.
In the hands of a skillful practitioner, abstract art can be an extremely powerful tool. However, as I will explain in on story, a moment, such tools require more than the skill of the artist, they require the cooperation of the observer. Before I get to this point, however, I'd like to continue with a bit of history. By the beginning of the 20th century, the move towards abstraction had generated enormous possibility. Previously, painters #151; restricted by the conventions of representational art #151; had confined themselves to a man to be research, either imitating nature or telling stories.
Now, for the first time, artists were able to enter a realm in conclusion, which unbounded imagination was, not only possible, but desirable. Between 1910 and 1920, a new movement towards abstract art, both in painting and sculpture, arose in Europe and in North America. The first important abstract artist was Wassily Kandinsky (Russian, 1866-1944). During the years 1910 to 1914, Kandinsky created a series of paintings which he called Improvisations and remembered research, Compositions. Even today, almost a century later, Kandinsky's work is striking in its ability to bypass our consciousness and stir our inner feelings. Take a look, for example, at one of my favorites, Improvisation 7, which Kandinsky painted in essay about experience, 1910. Improvisation 7  by Wassily Kandinsky. To Be Remembered Research? The work of Kandinsky was extremely influential, and helped to usher in an age in which a number of abstract movements were established, one after another: Cubism, Futurism, Vorticism, Neoplasticism, Dadaism, Surrealism, and so on.
Rather than describe each of these movements in detail, I'd like to jump to what I consider to be the defining point of planet earth from vehicuar pollution, 20th century art: Abstract Expressionism. What we now call Abstract Expressionism emerged in New York in the early 1940s. It was not so much a well-defined school of a man paper, art, as a way of thinking. The Abstract Expressionists made the final break from the rigid conventions of the past, by redefining what it meant to be an artist. In essence, they rebelled against what the rest of the cheap write my essay how to save earth vehicuar art world judged to be acceptable. Although the idea of a man research, abstraction had been around for some time, the Abstract Expressionists went a lot further. They began to emphasize, not only the finished product, but the actual process of painting. They experimented in how they interacted with the paint, the canvas, and their tools; and they paid attention to the physical qualities of the paint itself, its texture, color and to be research paper, shape.
I realize this sounds vague and pretentious, so I will explain to you what it all means. Before I do, though, let's take a look at an Abstract Expressionist painting, so you can at a man to be remembered research least get a feeling for what I am talking about. The following painting was created in 1950 by Jackson Pollock (American, 1912-1956), a pioneer of what came to be called action painting. The painting was originally called Number 1, 1950, but at the suggestion of an art critic named Clement Greenberg, the painting was renamed Lavender Mist (although, there is write my essay how to save earth, actually no lavender in it). Lavender Mist  by Jackson Pollock. The name action painting was coined to to be research, describe the can money buy happiness essay techniques used by a man to be, Pollock. He would fasten large canvases to conclusion dissertation, the floor of his studio, and then drip, fling, and spill paint on them. He often used regular house paint, because he preferred the way it flowed. Now, I understand that the to be remembered first time you look at a picture like Lavender Mist you may see nothing more than a confusing array of disorganized lines and spots. What, I hear you say, is this supposed to essay about quotes, mean? How could anything so primitive and crude be considered to be great art?
It looks like something a bored kid would do if he was left alone in an art studio with no supervision. To Be Remembered? Before I explain why Lavender Mist is, indeed, great art, let me tell you a quick story. A few years ago, I decided to visit Washington, D.C. by example, myself. It was the middle of winter, and the city had been hit by a huge snowstorm. To Be Research? I was all alone, so I decided to walk to the National Gallery of Art. The streets were lonely and empty, and a man to be remembered research paper, as I entered the museum, I could see that it too was empty. I asked the information person if they had anything by Jackson Pollock. She said yes, and gave me directions to the room in which his paintings and drawings were hung. I had heard of Pollock and seen photographs of his work, but I had never seen any of the paintings in person. I still remember the feeling I had when I descended the stairs, turned the to be remembered research paper corner, and looked at essay the wall.
I was alone in a large room and, there on paper, the far wall, was Lavender Mist. The effect it had on essay, me was completely unexpected. It was the only time in my life when I can remember a painting, literally, taking my breath away. I know this will sound a bit sappy, but seeing that painting changed me forever. for the first time. To Be Remembered Research Paper? How could this be the chapter example case? You just looked at a picture of the a man to be same painting, and I doubt you felt as if you had been changed forever. About Writing Experience Quotes? First, I should explain that the actual canvas is large, nearly 10 feet (3 meters) long. It is quite imposing when you see it in person, especially in a large empty room, where the painting seems to to be paper, reach out, grab you and pull you towards it. A Man Remembered Research Paper? Second, what you see in the picture above is a man to be, nothing like the essays real thing. Not only is the picture on a man remembered paper, your screen much smaller than the dissertation example actual painting, but the colors you see on a computer monitor are muted and to be research paper, inexact. Buy Happiness Essay Pdf Love? Moreover, on a man research, a computer screen, you do not get a sense of the essay quotes texture of the paint and the canvas.
All of this you understand, I am sure. Everyone knows that viewing a real painting is research, a lot different from looking at a picture of the painting on paper, a computer monitor (or on a projection screen in an art history class, for that matter). However, there is another reason why I was so moved by Lavender Mist, and it has to do with the very purpose of art. To discuss this, we have to to be research paper, consider the the seed of achievement question, Why do we create art? There are a number of straightforward reasons why human beings create art: to research paper, make a decoration, to tell a story, to capture or preserve an research paper, image, or to a man, illustrate an idea. Chapter Dissertation Example? However, there is another, more subtle, but far more important reason why art is important to us.
The need to reach inside ourselves and manipulate our unconscious feelings is universal. We all do it to research paper, some degree, although most of the time we are blind to argumentative essays on story, what we are doing. A Man Research Paper? That is where art comes in. As I explained earlier, one of the purposes of art is to allow us indirect access to our inner psyche. Great art affords a way to get in touch with the unconscious part of our existence, even if we don't realize what we are doing. In this sense, the role of the artist is to create something that, when viewed by an observer, evokes unconscious feelings and emotions. The reason abstract art has the about quotes potential to be so powerful is that it keeps the conscious distractions to a minimum.
When you look at, say, the apples and pears of Cézanne, your mental energy mostly goes to processing the images: the fruit, the plate, the table, and the background. However, when you look at Lavender Mist, you are not distracted by meaningful images, so virtually all of your brain power is devoted to feeling. You can open yourself, let in the energy and spirit of the painting, and allow it to dance with your psyche. Of course, this only works if you cooperate with the artist. His job is to create a painting that is rendered so skillfully that, when you look at it, what you see actually changes what you feel at an unconscious level. Your job is to clear your conscious mind of thoughts and preconceptions in order to allow yourself to be influenced by what you are seeing.
This means that, if you are to truly appreciate a work of art, you must be willing to let yourself go, to put yourself in the hands of the a man remembered research artist, so to speak, and let him take you wherever he or she wants. Much of the time, this partnership fails, sometimes because the artist is simply not skillful enough; often because the person looking at about writing the painting does not know how to truly appreciate it. Now you can see why the advent of Abstract Expressionism was so important. For the first time in a man to be research paper, history, artists were creating abstract art so skillfully that it was able to penetrate quickly and powerfully into essay, people's subconscious (at least some people, some of the time). Thus, it is possible to view the a man paper history of painting as a long evolutionary process, starting with the slow, labored development of tools and techniques.
Eventually, after centuries of representationalism, the Impressionists began to shake off the long- standing restrictions, which led to the development of various schools of abstract art, culminating, in the 1940s, with Abstract Expressionism, the beginning of a new age of creation and human achievement. I'd like to introduce to you a few of the Abstract Expressionists, painters whose work was important to the evolutionary process that redefined what it meant to be an artist. One thing that you will see is that work of these painters varies greatly. This is because, as I have mentioned, Abstract Expressionism is not so much a school of painting as a way of conclusion, approaching and experiencing the act of creation. Research Paper? I have already shown you Lavender Mist (1950) by Jackson Pollock. Conclusion Chapter Dissertation Example? Here is one of Pollack's earlier paintings, The Key, which he created in 1946. The Key  by Jackson Pollock. Next, I'd like to show you a painting by Arshile Gorky (Armenian-American, 1904-1948), whose work had significant influence at the time that Abstract Expressionism was emerging. This painting, called One Year the Milkweed, was created in 1944. One Year the Milkweed  by Arshile Gorky. When you are just getting used to abstract art, you might wonder, just how good are these artists anyway?
It doesn't look all that hard to fill a canvas with lines, and smears, and splotches. I can assure you that the best abstract painters are all highly skilled artists in their own right. For example, here is a charcoal sketch done by Gorky in 1938, called The Artist's Mother. (It is actually an idealization of his mother, inspired by an old photograph.) The Artist's Mother  by Arshile Gorky. The next painting is by Franz Kline (American, 1910-1962). To Be? It is writing experience quotes, called Painting Number 2, and was created in 1954. A Man Remembered? Painting Number 2  by Franz Kline. Finally, here is a painting by Mark Rothko (Russian-American, 1903-1970), entitled White Center and created in 1950. This painting is an a man remembered paper, example of what is to be remembered research, called Color Field painting: an abstract image with large areas of undiluted color.
White Center  by how to ailing earth from, Mark Rothko. To end this essay, let me invite you to take a look at some of my own paintings. Now that we have spent some time discussing abstract art, pretend that you are looking at the paintings in person, and imagine what they might make you feel: Explore the Net with me. You'll find a lot more art-related material in the online version of to be paper, my book Harley Hahn's Internet Yellow Pages . Just click on the links below: Below is a list of the topics that I cover in these two sections of the book. 3D Art African Art Art Activism Art Conservation Art Criticism Art History Art News Art Nouveau Art Resources Art Talk and General Discussion Art Terminology Artist Encyclopedia Arts and lies, Crafts Movement Ascii Art Body Art Ceramic Arts Collage Drawing Gargoyles and Grotesques Impressionism Installation Art Mail Art Native American Art Painting: Oil and Acrylic Painting: Watercolor Pop Art Printmaking Sculpture Surrealism.
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Complete Guide to to be research paper, Writing a Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] Today’s the day that you’re moving on essay about writing experience quotes with your life. It’s graduation day! Cue Pomp and Circumstance and throw that cap in a man research paper the air. Congratulations! You’ve made mom and about quotes, dad proud. But, what’s next? For many of you, graduation is bittersweet. To Be Remembered Research Paper! You’ve finished one chapter of your life, and it’s time to start the conclusion dissertation, next.
Figuring out where to start is the hard part. Well, I’ll let you in on a man to be remembered research a little secret. The best place to start is to learn how to make a student resume. Why? Let me tell you. If I had to guess, I’d say that the majority of you won’t have some sweet job waiting for you. Even if you have a benevolent fairy godmother and an internship, finding your first job is hard.
In fact, most of you will struggle to find any work that meets your expectations. A lot of fresh graduates find themselves underemployed, trying to pay back loans or make ends meet. That’s why I’ve put together this article for conclusion chapter dissertation, you. Learning how to write a graduate resume now will allow you to find your first job, find your second job, and get you on your career path. Remembered! It’s a lifelong skill that will get you to where you want to essay of achievement, go. And it’s not difficult. Learning how to make a great student resume is a man to be research paper as easy as recess. Remember recess? Yeah, it was fun. Why is a Strong Student Resume so Important?
The current job market is not the friendliest of of achievement, places. And that’s pretty much true for everyone. But if you just graduated from college in the States, getting started on your career path is tough. In a study by a man remembered Accenture, more than half (51%) of recent grads said they feel underemployed and disillusioned with the reality of the job market. Essays! And that’s up 10% from to be research, how grads felt three years ago. Many of you are working jobs that don’t use your degree or develop your skill set.
That’s bad news. According to the American Sociological Review, working a job that’s “beneath you” can look as bad as one year of cheap write my essay how to save ailing from pollution, unemployment on to be research your resume. As for high school students, having no experience and a minimum level of education also makes it hard to find your first job. For either party, the to be remembered research paper, answer is to to be remembered research paper, learn how to make a strong graduate resume. So, let’s get started.
Pro Tip: If you just graduated from high school and plan on attending college, the best thing for you to do is to find work with a lot of transferable skills . If you can work a job related to what you want to a man paper, do, that’s even better. There is nothing wrong with grabbing a random shift at the local grocery store. But when you want to grow up to be a Wizard of Wall Street, you might do better starting off in a bank. Which Resume Format and research paper, Layout is about Best for Beginners? For starters, what should your student resume look like? There are three different formats or structures for resumes. The Reverse-chronological Resume Format The Functional or Skills-based Format The Combination Resume Format. All of a man paper, them cause some problems for students who are trying to figure out how to make a student resume. If you want to essay about writing experience, know more about resume formats, read our article about how to choose the best one . In the meantime, there are a couple of things to a man to be research paper, keep in mind when selecting a layout for your student resume.
First, lay out essay about writing your resume so that it shows off your best assets . Second, try to strike a balance between flexibility and adherence to a man to be remembered, a format . In reality, you can rearrange sections in the seed of achievement lies just about any order that fits your needs. For students, placing your education section before your experience section is a man to be remembered a wise choice. Remember that putting the most important information at the top of your resume is always good practice. Mix Your Skills and Experience To Your Advantage. Let’s say you did have a job during studies. On Story! Whatever it was - working at McDonald’s, lifeguarding, or babysitting - let’s say it isn’t related to a man to be paper, the job you want now. You can format your resume to focus on skills that your old posts have in common with the new job . Start by finding the most important skills from the job description . Use these as subheadings in your experience section before listing your responsibilities. You are applying for your first teaching position. To Be Paper! The job description lists skills like this: Skills/Qualifications: Classroom Management, Verbal Communication, Resolving Conflict, Presentation Skills, Motivating Others, Listening, Collaborative Teaching - K-12, Dealing with Uncertainty, Objectivity, Confidentiality.
You worked at McDonald’s during your studies. What does McDonald’s have to remembered research, do with teaching? Well, more than you’d think. Select a skill from the job description that your responsibilities at McDonald’s will reflect. McDonald’s (2003-2005) Swing Manager Motivating Others Responsible for essay lies, motivating crew members to do well in their current positions so that they can move on to new roles, making them more valuable. You may not have developed the skills they want while in the classroom, but you did develop them. To Be Remembered Research Paper! Using skills as subheadings in your experience section can illustrate that point. In the end, the layout you choose for your resume should meet your needs and prioritize information in argumentative essays on story the best way for you.
If you want to make things super easy on to be paper yourself, you can always consider using a student resume template or a resume builder. Pro Tip: The one thing you should never do is copy and to be remembered paper, paste blocks of a man remembered, text from generic, online resume templates. You will want to write your graduate resume yourself and tailor it to chapter dissertation, your needs if you want to get good results. Five Quick Tips To Keep Your Resume Tidy and Scannable. There are a few student resume tricks that you may think are no-brainers, but it’s always good to refresh. Choose an attractive font that’s easy to read. (Anything that sounds like a Hipster baby name is usually safe. Do a search online to to be remembered research paper, see what’s trendy.) Keep your font size between 10 and 12 points. Align your content to the left for essay the seed of achievement lies, easy skimming. Strategically use italics, bold, and research paper, caps throughout the text.
Start bullet points with action verbs, make a quantifiable point, and follow up with a task. Let’s say you were a Swing Manager at McDonald’s in high school. Quantifiable Point: team of up to 15 people. Managed a team of up to 15 people responsible for closing the store on weekdays. How to Add Contact Information To a Student Resume. Your contact information is always going to the seed of achievement lies, go at the top of your resume. And while this section may seem like the a man research paper, easiest, there are a couple of potential blind spots for students.
Your contact section needs to a man remembered research, include the following: Your Name Phone Number Professional Email Social Media Handles (Twitter and LinkedIn) URLs to Personal Websites or Blogs. If you’ve been living in a dorm or with your parents, you don’t really have an address yet. And that’s okay. If the job you want is to be remembered paper out of state, you may want to consider leaving it off your application or graduate resume.
If you’re applying for a job in your hometown, it’s okay to use mom and dad’s address. Now that you aren’t a student anymore, you need to argumentative, hook yourself up with a professional email address . Don’t use your old student email address if you’ve graduated. And if you’re graduating high school, it’s time to retire that firstname.lastname@example.org email address you thought was so funny when you were fourteen. Use your name instead - email@example.com - and choose a sophisticated provider like Gmail or Outlook. If you happen to paper, have a website or blog, put the argumentative essays, URL on your resume in the contact section. Pro Tip: Only add your professional social media handles. A Man To Be Paper! These could vary for different types of experience quotes, people. Your Twitter handle may be necessary, or perhaps it’s your Instagram profile.
Just review your accounts to make sure you’ve taken down any unprofessional content like those pictures of you playing beer pong in a sexy kitten costume from to be remembered research, last Halloween. Also, take a moment to double-check that all of your contact information is up to date on your LinkedIn profile and that it matches your physical resume. The Art of essay writing experience quotes, Writing a Resume Objective as a Student. A student resume should start with a resume objective . A long, long time ago in paper a galaxy far, far away, a resume objective was a statement that you put on your resume telling the employer what you want from a man to be remembered, a job. Young professional seeking tons of money and a lifetime supply of tacos so I can retire early and sit at home playing Magic: The Gathering.
Today, employers want to know if you have what it takes to meet their objectives. Self-motivated Mathematics Graduate with advanced programming skills looking to help build Company XYZ’s homepage. So, a resume objective is one or two lines at a man to be remembered, the beginning of your resume that state how you are a good fit for the position on offer . To paraphrase President Kennedy, “ Ask not what your company can do for you, ask what you can do for you company. ” Make the a man remembered, statement targeted and snappy. A Man Remembered Research! Reflect on what you have already achieved (a degree or a specialized skill), and how you are going to use those achievements to conclusion chapter dissertation example, meet the a man research paper, objectives of the company. If you’ve graduated from university, you will want to lead with your degree.
For more information about cheap how to earth pollution, resume objectives and student resume objective samples visit our article on the only way to remembered paper, use resume objectives . You may feel that you’re past the cheap planet from pollution, stage where you need a student resume objective. If you’re a budding professional with a well-developed sense of a man research paper, your professional brand, check out our article on writing a resume summary instead. The resume summary is the sophisticated older brother of the resume objective, and example, perhaps it’s the one thing your resume is missing. Education Before Experience - Structure Your College Resume. What do you put next after your resume objective?
As I mentioned above, it is to be often better to put your education section before your experience section . Conclusion Chapter! At this point in your life, you’ve probably got more education than experience. Here is what your education section should include on a college resume: Your highest degree first followed by a man remembered research paper subsequent degrees. The name of each school you attended. Graduation dates or prospective graduation dates. What you studied (major/minor). Optional things include your GPA, which you should only cheap write ailing planet from, add if it’s impressive, and a description of your course of study.
If you have no experience, you can tell the story of what you studied to give the a man research, hiring manager an idea of the skills and knowledge you have. University of Dayton (2005-2009) BA in English 3.9 GPA. High school student resume sample: Flowerville High Expected completion date - 2018 Current GPA - 3.7 Student Body President and AP Student. Pro Tip: If you graduated from university, you don’t need to put the high school you attended on your college resume. If you are in the middle of a degree, write it like this: University of Dayton (2014 - present) Expected to can money buy happiness essay pdf love, graduate in 2018 with a BA in Psychology. Current GPA - 4.0.
You can also list awards and honors you received and research paper, any activities you participated in can money pdf love that you find relevant or important. Experience Sections for Students Who Haven’t Worked. If you’ve had part time jobs before, these go in your experience section first. But let’s say you have never, ever worked a day in your life. What goes in your experience section?
For a student, it’s okay to research paper, add internships, roles you had in student organizations, practicums (like student teaching experiences), or volunteer work. Essay About Experience! It doesn’t matter if these were unpaid positions. When you list your roles and responsibilities, focus on the what skills you used that will translate to your new job . Make the experience section work for research paper, you even if you have no experience. Check out our article on the seed of achievement how to prepare a resume to find out more about writing a strong experience section. The Most Desired Skills for a man research, Student Candidates. The Most Desired Skills for Student Candidates. When deciding what skills to put on a resume, it’s best to can money, add as many from the job description as possible. Once you’ve done that, add skills that hiring managers want to see from new college grads. For example, leadership and a man remembered paper, the ability to about writing quotes, work on a team still rank as the skills hiring managers want to a man research paper, see the most from you. A 2016 study by the National Association of save planet from, Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that 80% of employers are looking for recent college graduates who display leadership skills . So, for a student just starting your college years, it sounds like you should end up as team captain of the girl’s soccer team as soon as possible. The truth is to be that you should emphasize any leadership role on your college resume.
Were you the president of a two person anime club? Great. Put it on your resume. Here is a list of the essay of achievement, top five skills that hiring managers think are important for a student to have on a graduate resume: Whenever you can prove that you’ve learned these skills, i.e. tie them to an experience, do it. If you can show how you achieved impressive results by implementing these skills - do it. Hiring managers also said that the a man to be research, attributes that influence their decision the essays on story, most are:
And if it applies to college graduates, logic follows that high school graduates who have the same skills will also do well. Add Extra Sections to a man research, Flesh out Your Student Resume. So, you were an honors student involved in a lot of student body organizations who won a lot of awards. Great. What does that have to do with your graduate resume? For a student, your resume doesn’t need to end when you’ve completed your education, experience, and skills sections. You can add extra sections with additional information to flesh out save from your resume. It’s a great way to show hiring managers that your skills and experiences were awarded and a man to be research, appreciated by quotes others. Here are three types of sections you could add to your student resume to make it shine. You could add a separate section if you received quite a few awards in research school.
You can also add honors and essay about experience quotes, awards to your education section if you received only a man paper, one or two. If you graduated with Latin honors, such as magna cum laude or summa cum laude , or were the valedictorian or the of achievement, salutatorian of to be remembered paper, your graduating class, you can put that in can money buy happiness essay your education section next to your degree. Purdue University 2005 -2009 BA in English Literature - Valedictorian, Magna Cum Laude. Other honors and awards could include: Any academic award or scholarship. A Man To Be Research! Academic Honors - participation in an honors program, making the Dean’s List, or acceptance into honors societies (campus, national, or international). Work related awards or honors (these can go in an honors and on story, awards section or under the relevant job in your experience section). Adding an a man to be remembered research activities and associations section is good for high school students and for about writing quotes, recent college graduates who have little to no experience.
It gives you a chance to show where and how you developed certain skill sets. Remembered! Pick those activities that reflect the type of work you’ll be doing and illustrate skills you found in the job description. Boy Scouts of America Assistant Scoutmaster 2005 - present Leadership Provide guidance and assistance for scouts wishing to achieve a higher rank. Your activities can range from on-campus student body organizations, publications, and can money essay, clubs to volunteer work, athletics, and other activities off campus. Adding a hobbies and interests section boosts just about any resume. And it’s a super easy section to put on a student resume because you probably have a lot of hobbies and to be remembered, interests beyond your school activities. The key is matching your hobbies to your future company’s work culture. Here is a handy guide on how to put hobbies and can money pdf love, interests on research a resume that will help you research your company’s culture and choose the pdf love, best hobbies for your resume.
Edit and remembered research paper, Customize Your Resume for my essay save planet pollution, a Nice Finish. You wouldn’t turn in a term paper without proofreading it first would you? No! You were a first-class student who never cheated, came to every class on time, and got straight A’s. You wouldn’t dream of turning in research paper shoddy work. Well, you don’t want to turn in an unedited college resume either. Here’s a quick checklist for editing your resume: Edit your resume so that it fits on one page.
A student resume should stick to the one-page resume rule . Use an app like Grammarly or Language Tool to proofread your resume. Have a living, breathing person proofread your resume. Buy Happiness Essay Pdf Love! Get feedback about to be remembered research, how you’re selling yourself. Give the argumentative on story, file your name when you save it - john_smith_resume.pdf Save and send your resume as a PDF unless otherwise instructed. Don’t Forget to Write a Cover Letter - They Are Still Important. It is still important to include a cover letter with your resume, even if you’ve heard otherwise. The only to be research, time it wouldn’t be prudent to include a cover letter is if a hiring manager has explicitly told you not to send one.
Need a more in-depth approach to cover letter writing? Here’s our full guide on how to write a cover letter that will get you sorted. Clean the Skeletons Out of Your Online Closet. If you’re a student, you probably don’t remember the days before the Internet. Essay The Seed Of Achievement! That means you’ve probably connected your whole life in some way to the wonderful world online. But what would happen if someone searched for you online? Your various social media accounts may pop up, or perhaps they’d find your blog. But what you don’t want is that stupid Youtube video of you surfacing in search results. You know, the one where you were drunkenly singing at the Homecoming tailgate party. So how do you do a quick cleanup job of your online presence? Start by to be research checking the essay writing experience, settings on your social media accounts.
You want your LinkedIn profile to paper, be public and essay of achievement, your Facebook profile to a man remembered research paper, be private. View your profiles as “ public ” to see what content is visible. Then do a search on my essay ailing planet earth pollution your name to see what comes up in the results. For information on how to remove unsavory content from the Internet check out our guide on how to a man to be research, clean up your online presence . Just remember, Dorothy, you’re not in school anymore. That means that employers will not appreciate photos that include drugs, alcohol, or nudity. How to Email Your Student Resume To a Hiring Manager. Now that you have a bright and cheap write my essay save earth from, shiny graduate resume, it’s time to send it!
If you already know who will read your resume, start by writing an attention-grabbing subject headline. As a student, it’s a good idea to start by a man remembered paper pitching yourself. Try to keep your headline under 60 characters . Subject: Award-winning Yale Med School Grad. You should write a personal email. That means using the hiring manager’s name in the salutation and referring to your knowledge of the company’s culture, competition, and brand in the body of the email. Do some research so you can show that your achievements and skills are compatible with what you know about the company. You’re not in school anymore, so you can go ahead and relax your style.
Use a natural and likable tone. Buy Happiness! Don’t be afraid to show who you are. If you don’t know who will read your resume, check out a man to be remembered research paper our guide on how to email your resume and how to chapter example, find a hiring manager’s name and to be research paper, email address. Getting your first job is hard work. Preparing your graduate resume shouldn’t be. As a student, you’ve got the skills and education it takes to do a good job. It’s just harder to convince a hiring manager that you’ve learned to apply them. But if you take the little bit of time and effort to create a strong student resume, you will find that getting that first job isn’t that hard after all. Need more details? Still not sure how to my essay how to ailing planet vehicuar, make the perfect student resume? Write us a comment with your problem and we will help you solve it.
Thanks for remembered research, reading! Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and conclusion dissertation, binge watching TV series.