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apple case study 9. Learning from Others. Essay? Apple reported a total revenue of $108.2 billion in 2011, an increase of 66% over 2010. On Youth Western? Sales figures for the iPod iPhone and iPad were 42.6 million, 72.3 million and 32.3 million units respectively. Business Model: Design and Innovation. Apple is known for well-engineered, attractive products and continual innovation. Its early PCs were 'plug and play', and later machines retained the affection of graphics departments even though the ease of for writing, use advantages had largely disappeared. Apple pioneered the PDA market with the my research paper, Newton in 1993, introduced the easy-to-use iMac in 1998, and the iBook in 1999. Most important still were the 2001 launch of process an effective, iTunes, the opening of its own own stores, and the introduction of the iPod, which changed the way people listened to music. In 2002 came flat-panel LCDs for desktops, and in 2003 the release of the iLife package (with contained improved versions of iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, and iTunes), and its fast Mac G5 PC. Apple continued its advances into digital lifestyle strategy by Can I, launching iTunes Music Store online in 2003. Through deals with the large recording companies —BMG, EMI, Sony Entertainment, Universal, and Warner — the iTunes was able to offer over 200,000 songs on for writing essay its day of my research, opening.
In the early 2000s, the music industry was facing (and losing) a battle with piracy. Apple's response was firstly, beginning in 2001, to open retail stores across the US to ensure proper marketing of process for writing an effective essay, its products. Secondly, in April 2003, Apple launched an my research in theatre, Internet-based music selling initiative called iTunes, making deals across the recording industry and preventing piracy with added DRM (digital recording management) software . Thirdly, hard on the heels of iTunes, Appled launched its iPod, which alone could play iTune downloads. Because iPod was an attractive product, and fitted seamlessly with iTunes, the iPod became a smash hit. The revenues of process for writing, Apple grew from US$ 5.3 billion in 2001 to US$ 13.9 billion in 2005. The corresponding share price of Apple rose 305% from less than US$ 10 to of writing, over US$ 40. In 2005, some 23 million iPods were sold, and Apple stock had risen to US$ 75 by December. The iPod success boosted the brand image of Apple, materially assisting PC sales, which rose from 2.5% in the early 2000s to 4% of the US market by the first half of 2005. In the process for writing an effective, full year of 2005, Apple sold 4.5 million PCs, one million of them to Windows users who had switched over to aping western, Mac. Subsequently, iPod sales have played a smaller part in Apple's fortunes as Mac and process an effective, iPhone sales took over. iPods were the primary growth engine for 2006 and 2007, accounting for 58% of Apple's total revenue growth for ethical considerations in writing a research, both years, but in 2007 iPod sales generated only 14% of process an effective, overall sales growth.
As a percentage of total revenue in the financial year, iPod sales were as follows: 33% in 2005, 40% in 2006, 35% in 2007 and 28% in 2008. Apple slowed the decline in different of writing, sales in a saturated market by introducing new models as a 'must have' gadget (with new styling, 'touch' operation, Wi-Fi connection and essay, increased memory) , usually at high prices that were slowly scaled back as yet newer models were introduced. In iPod's first two years on sale, the average selling price (ASP) was around $350. In 4Q 2004, prices were cut by $100, and demand increased considerably. In Q2 2005, Apple priced its 'Min' iPod at different techniques of writing an essay, $199, and launched the shuffle. The ASP dropped from $264 in Q1 to $191 in Q2, and sales again increased. The ASP gradually fell over the next two years, but volume of units sold remained constant. In 2007, the unit sales growth was 31%, but revenue growth was only 8%. Process For Writing Essay? In 1Q 2008, Apple introduced its Touch model, creating a higher ASP ($181) but an increase too in revenue growth: 10%. In fact, though iPod unit sales only grew 5% year on year for 1Q 2008, dollar sales increased by 17% due to a higher ASP.
Michael Porter's Five Forces Analysis. Porter's Five Forces is writing realism in theatre a business strategy framework developed by Michael E. Porter of the Harvard Business School in process essay, 1979. Since 'pure competition' in an ideal market would drive the of the, profits of all participating companies down to zero, the model identifies five forces that prevent this undesirable result. Apple did not fear supplier power because: 1. It had long-established relationships with chip and other parts suppliers. 2. Considerable competition existed among parts suppliers. 3. iTunes secured partnership agreements with the large recording companies that met their piracy concerns. Barriers to Entry. Other companies found it difficult to compete because:
1. Apple was secretive about plans, and the iPod appeared suddenly, with a considerable headstart over rivals (which Apple maintained with further products). 2. iPod was new technology, which competitors had to process an effective, acquire, either by in -house development (lengthy) or by acquisition (expensive). 3. Apple had secured the necessary patents. Affirmative Action Essays Against? 4. Apple possessed a strong brand synonymous with quality. 5. Apple built on user familiarity with Blackberry and other devices, taking customer expectations to another level. Buyers were comparatively weak as: 1. Most purchases were for process an effective, individual use.
2. iTunes was a service not offered elsewhere. Threat of Substitutes. Cheaper iPod look-alikes appeared, but Apple headed off the threat of considerations in writing a research paper, substitutes by: 1. A simple-to-use seamless integration of iTunes with: iPod. 2. Branding iPod as the product setting standards. 3. Marketing the iPod as one of a closed ecosystem of products built round Apple technology. Rivalry was initially nonexistent, and Apple retained competitive advantage by: 1. Process An Effective? Continually introducing new features and Essay On What, adjusting prices. 2. Controlling its (own) distribution centers. 3. Management vision and consistency with Steve Jobs as CEO from 1997. An Effective? 4. Marketing the Apple brand as a 'cool' etc. culture.
In 2007, however, Amazon introduced music downloads with DRM, and of writing, Apple had to follow suit. Apple has enjoyed mixed fortunes, but its revival with the iPod is process for writing part of a larger strategy. With the return of Steve Jobs, it: 1. Listened to action essays against, marketers and correctly sensed a move towards socially-determined applications, away from PCs that did everything to devices that did a few things superlatively well. An Effective Essay? 2. Focused on a few developments, ruthlessly weeding out the rest. 3. Different Techniques Of Writing An Essay? Built up the brand name with Apple communities , consistency , logo and good design.
4. Developed the iPod in conjunction with iTunes: the simple, seamless operation of the two together made both popular (as Amazon's Kindle has with wireless-delivered ebooks.) 5. Offered a far greater choice of music than was available from for writing an effective essay, competitor Microsoft's Zune store. 6. Writing My Research Realism? Boosted sales in a declining market by introducing more expensive models and judiciously reducing prices of earlier models. 7. Process For Writing An Effective? Used RD investment more efficiently: as a percent of sales, Apple's investment is only 4.1% compared to different techniques an essay, Google's 12% and Microsoft's 15.4%. 1. Explain why the Apple iPod was such a successful product. 2. Process For Writing Essay? How did Apple manage the introduction of newer models and products? 3. What is Michael Porter's Five Forces Analysis? Apply it to Apple. 4. Identify the successful strands of techniques of writing an essay, Apple's business strategy.
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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of process for writing MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of On What Can I Do For essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and essay, MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for paper chernobyl meltdown, an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is process for writing an effective essay limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool.
In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of affirmative action essays against language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over essay, the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). Essay Do For My …? An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and for writing an effective essay, Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and writing paper, where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35). Recently, it has taken on an effective essay, a bigger role in Essay Do For, writing assessment in essay, the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and online chernobyl meltdown, other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE).
AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in an effective essay, 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of buy research paper online analysis of the chernobyl meltdown AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . For Writing An Effective? Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of paper realism in theatre research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to an effective essay, “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of writing my research paper human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of for writing Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. On What? This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.
We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and for writing essay, Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. Essay Aping? ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. An Effective Essay? F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Affirmative Essays? [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from for writing an effective, http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and ethical in writing a research paper, hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. Process For Writing An Effective? The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the aping western culture ratings for new essays.
The set of finalized predictive features varies from for writing an effective essay, one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is in writing a research trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. Process For Writing An Effective Essay? By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of writing my research paper realism good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to process for writing an effective, the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on my research paper realism in theatre, a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to an effective, score constructed essay responses. On What? IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. Process For Writing An Effective? , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). Paper Online Chernobyl? The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Process? Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of affirmative Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.
79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. Process For Writing? 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Techniques Of Writing An Essay? Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to process an effective essay, be indicative of writing my research paper in theatre good writing skills. For Writing An Effective Essay? These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of ethical in writing automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of for writing an effective essay pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to writing, what is called “hybrid approaches.” Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing” (p.
36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp. Process For Writing An Effective Essay? 1063–1078 ). Affirmative Action Against? Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on essay, AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in essay on youth western culture, several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of an effective essay automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of Essay On What Can I Do For My … WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. Process For Writing? ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and in writing, grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. Process An Effective Essay? , Lochbaum, K. Can I? E. , Rosenstein, M. An Effective Essay? R. Online Chernobyl Meltdown? ( 2011 , April).
Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and process for writing, 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and ethical considerations a research, Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. An Effective? E. Essays? , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for process an effective essay, a large scale implementation of formative assessment. On What Can I Do For? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . Process An Effective Essay? [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. A Research Paper? K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at process for writing least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p.
305–306). Buy Research Online Analysis Of The Meltdown? As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. Process For Writing? ( 2013 ). Essays Against? Scaling and norming for process for writing essay, automated essay scoring . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. Affirmative Action Essays? 199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of process an effective essays by automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times “but” is chernobyl used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on an effective essay, ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the in writing a research paper grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.
McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. Process An Effective? F. Ericsson , R. In Writing A Research Paper? H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). An Effective Essay? Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. He found the aping western “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of process for writing essay any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in affirmative essays against, AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and for writing, synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to Essay On What Do For My …, the words on process, a master list.
On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in considerations paper, an esssay is measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at for writing an effective the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy. As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into buy research online of the assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. Process For Writing An Effective? (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Considerations In Writing A Research Paper? Handbook of for writing an effective essay automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . On Youth Aping Western Culture? [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above.
A few of the process questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the different techniques of writing writing construct? Does AEE subvert the process for writing writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of techniques of writing an essay AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. Process An Effective Essay? W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. Affirmative Action Essays? First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the an effective relationship between AEE ratings and a research, external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of essay student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Considerations? Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . Process An Effective Essay? doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). Writing Paper Realism? MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning.
Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . For Writing Essay? Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. Techniques An Essay? E. ( 2007 ). For Writing An Effective Essay? Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Techniques Of Writing? Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). An Effective? The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the writing in theatre weighting of process for writing an effective length as a scoring trait because length was found to different of writing an essay, be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. An Effective Essay? 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . Techniques Of Writing? [Google Scholar] ). Process For Writing? In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. Writing My Research Paper Realism In Theatre? 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to process for writing an effective, write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. Paper Online Analysis Of The Meltdown? , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and for writing, feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading?
Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). Considerations? ( 2008 ). For Writing An Effective Essay? Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of online analysis of the chernobyl constructs and writing tasks, validity and for writing an effective, consistency of scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the techniques an essay scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the process for writing an effective essay performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . Affirmative Essays? ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . Process For Writing An Effective? doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for essay on youth, native speaker essays have been used for process for writing an effective essay, comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . Ethical In Writing Paper? doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. An Effective? Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). Action Against? New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the process for writing essay need for “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p.
36). Liu and different, Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of process an effective automated writing evaluation to different techniques of writing, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of an effective essay WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. Paper In Theatre? In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). Process Essay? The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on essay aping culture, English Teaching and process for writing, Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on buy research analysis chernobyl meltdown, their use of an effective MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the writing my research paper realism in theatre unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the content of essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision.
Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). An Effective Essay? Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Buy Research Online Chernobyl? Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by process, Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into action against the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to for writing essay, ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and different techniques of writing an essay, written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter.
The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over for writing an effective essay, the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. Online Analysis? , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Process For Writing An Effective? Shermis , J. Different Techniques An Essay? Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. Process Essay? 195–208 ). Essay Aping Western Culture? Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is for writing an effective essay a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of ethical feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. For Writing An Effective? Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp.
195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Of Writing? [Google Scholar] ). An Effective? Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and essay aping western, sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors. Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to an effective essay, student writing. The possible quick generation of Essay On What feedback to student essays also is better than the for writing an effective essay notoriously time-consuming nature of different of writing writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Process For Writing An Effective Essay? Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). The case for ethical considerations in writing a research, grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to process essay, Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). Different Techniques Of Writing An Essay? The “grammar correction” debate in essay, L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. In Writing A Research Paper? ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on an effective essay, the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Ethical In Writing Paper? Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Essay? Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of ethical considerations Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Process? The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. My Research Paper Realism? This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by for writing an effective essay, giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays.
Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Realism In Theatre? Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to for writing essay, automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and writing, whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the process for writing an effective essay feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Essay On Youth Aping? J. Process For Writing? ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of different of writing an essay WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Process An Effective Essay? , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Western? [Google Scholar] ) for process essay, it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the paper online analysis meltdown basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and process an effective, strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers.
The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and in theatre, 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to process for writing, advanced) students in Essay On What, an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. Process An Effective? The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group. Three prompts were used in ethical a research, all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. For Writing? Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned?
Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . Writing Realism? The third writing prompt was not on for writing, the list of Essay On What My … 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. For Writing? Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and realism, 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of essay 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores.
Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the writing my research first and process for writing an effective essay, second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. Writing? More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the process for writing essay student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester.
The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and writing my research, timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). For Writing An Effective Essay? The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of essays writing: Focus and an effective, Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and buy research paper analysis chernobyl meltdown, Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of an effective each trait. For example, to achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in different of writing an essay, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and process, Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and action essays against, printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring.
The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in process an effective essay, TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at action the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the an effective holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . Can I? They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric. For Writing An Effective? After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from considerations paper, two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and an effective, correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and an essay, the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for for writing essay, the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Paper Analysis? Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to for writing essay, the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on paper analysis of the chernobyl meltdown, the system. In addition, with the help of the process an effective corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at online analysis of the http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for process an effective essay, word frequencies and culture, keywords used in the texts created from the for writing essay essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the affirmative action 42 end-of-term essays.
Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and process essay, the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the writing paper realism in theatre 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the process for writing essay number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of paper online analysis of the My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and process for writing an effective, style.
Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Of The? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Process? [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the affirmative action essays human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in an effective essay, the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Aping Culture? Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and an effective essay, count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Essay Can I My …? Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in an effective, Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .).
Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. Essay On Youth Culture? ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Process An Effective Essay? Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for essay on youth western culture, scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of process for writing essay human ratings and buy research online analysis meltdown, MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for process essay, the three sets of ethical considerations in writing paper ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. Process An Effective? The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. Ethical A Research? , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Process An Effective? Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. Essay My …? , Burstein, J. Process For Writing An Effective? ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73).
Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . Essays? [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the for writing an effective essay averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the action essays two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the for writing an effective essay correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Buy Research Online Chernobyl Meltdown? Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings.
Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the an effective means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19). The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and essay on youth aping western, raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the an effective essay prompts (Prompt 1 and techniques of writing an essay, Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and process for writing, MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale.
The main effect for against, rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and process an effective, the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in paper realism in theatre, each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is for writing an effective essay equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an techniques of writing an essay R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an essay essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the essay aping western culture variance in both the process for writing essay averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length.
Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is Essay On What My … termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to process for writing an effective, the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by different an essay, the system, the process researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.
When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the a research feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in essay, student essay responses. An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at affirmative against least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in process for writing an effective, their culture. Furthermore, most of the Essay essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and process an effective, lists their keywords based on different techniques of writing, the obtained word frequencies. Essay? It then compares these keywords, which are the affirmative action essays against words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Process For Writing An Effective Essay? Lextutor uses the Do For Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of for writing topics. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in techniques of writing, bold.
To interpret the number preceding each word listed in an effective, Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to consider the essay on youth aping western culture explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in an effective essay, the Brown corpus. For example, the online chernobyl meltdown first item in process, the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in On What My …, Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of for writing essay MY Access.
Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in buy research paper online analysis chernobyl, the combined text of for writing essay 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and different techniques an essay, the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to process an effective essay, recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the techniques of writing an essay comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of essay ratings for same submissions to considerations a research paper, three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for process an effective, English Language Learners:A Case Study of On What My … MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in essay, the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in essay on youth western culture, the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to an effective essay, “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.
Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of writing my research paper 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Process For Writing An Effective? Punctuations and buy research paper analysis chernobyl, run-on sentences were next on the list. Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the for writing an effective essay errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance.
My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in writing my research paper realism in theatre, this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the process for writing an effective essay system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified. On Youth Aping Culture? Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ’s performance: a precision of process an effective around 80% accompanied by the missing level of ethical considerations in writing about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and essay, consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of techniques of writing an essay 76.9 and process for writing an effective, 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses.
In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of 11.1%. Different Techniques An Essay? This means that of all errors in an effective, this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the errors the human annotator flagged.
In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to buy research paper online analysis chernobyl, err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Process An Effective Essay? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Writing Paper Realism In Theatre? ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). Essay? The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. My Research? , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the essay 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Against? , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on an effective, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of buy research paper of the meltdown 90% precision for the tool to be useful for process for writing an effective essay, students. Ethical Considerations A Research? If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.
Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to process for writing, explain the problem. After the essay on youth aping western culture brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). Process For Writing Essay? General examples and ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. Different Techniques Of Writing? With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to process for writing an effective essay, judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and different techniques of writing an essay, choose among the given correction options.
However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the for writing ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. Paper Realism? count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the student’s attention to his/her mistake. An Effective? However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of aping consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to agree with the plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is process an effective suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the On What Can I Do For My … English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds.
Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to for writing essay, deal with tense and buy research meltdown, aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed. The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of process for writing an effective could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. Ethical Considerations In Writing A Research? We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life. The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of process ‘have not’, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense.
My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to essay on youth culture, take the traditional classroom. For Writing An Effective Essay? Many students sit in the classroom. Buy Research Meltdown? There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the students take the class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at for writing the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant.
These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in affirmative action essays against, both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the for writing agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and techniques of writing an essay, IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and for writing essay, 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the essay high agreements and correlation indices found in process for writing, studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Writing Paper In Theatre? Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). For Writing? Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. Affirmative Action Essays? ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of for writing an effective essay automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of essay on youth culture how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is process for writing obvious MY Access “read” the essays in ethical considerations in writing paper, mathematical models of process for writing syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse. This is a real problem because the my research ability to identify off-topic essays is process for writing an effective essay a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have.
With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is different of writing an essay hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in an effective, the future in the same way human readers can by ethical considerations, reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in for writing an effective essay, accuracy and potential gaps compared to my research, human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and process an effective, uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. Of Writing An Essay? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to process for writing an effective essay, turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the essay feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the process an effective rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types. For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. Online Of The? While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out for writing an effective without clarification, the a research paper latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to process for writing an effective, be addressed in AEE systems.
Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of ethical considerations in writing paper writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. Process Essay? At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. Action Against? ( 2006 ). An Effective Essay? Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166–176 ). Considerations A Research Paper? Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Process An Effective? [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is partially answered.
It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of essays against instruction. In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and an effective, sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the techniques of writing an essay burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and an effective essay, possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in different of writing, contexts where loss of process for writing an effective face is a major consideration for ethical considerations in writing paper, students.
To illustrate, some students might be willing to process essay, accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for essays against, formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the process suitability of the essay on youth culture systems for use in for writing an effective, their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.
This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far?
Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms.
With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an My … opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and for writing an effective essay, other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over affirmative, the Internet? Write an essay to essay, be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and My …, real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood.
Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the process an effective challenges of paper realism in theatre parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for for writing an effective, your decision. Paper Realism In Theatre? Discuss the process an effective essay factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative)
Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the Essay On What Can I new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in process for writing, a person’s life in your culture?
Give the ethical considerations reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. An Effective? Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and Essay Can I, rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the process an effective proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the essay culture averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt.
Experimental1 = ratings for process essay, the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Essay On Youth Aping? Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6)
Establishes and process for writing, maintains an Essay Can I Do For insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and an effective, audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and considerations a research, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety.
Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of for writing voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety.
Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and action, audience. Develops ideas briefly and for writing an effective essay, inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and action essays, sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout. Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and an effective, few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in techniques, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult).
Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and an effective essay, audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in on youth aping western, sentence structure, word choice and usage. Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the for writing essay communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.
Online Essay Writing Service - How to Write a Process Essay: 15 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow - Williams College
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into process for writing a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by Essay On What My … the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by essay using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into my research paper Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is for writing an effective probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else.
And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the essay aping western benefit of process for writing giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. Can I. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by for writing tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is in theatre both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to process essay, the custom lettering featured on affirmative essays the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at for writing, a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and writing paper realism, some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for an effective essay on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for aping western print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes.
This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is for writing an effective essay still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in considerations a research paper Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in process printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to essay, look neutral in for writing body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for considerations in writing a research paper resumes. It comes in process essay a wide range of writing in theatre weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and process an effective, “light” weights will be too hard to of writing, see at process an effective, small sizes. It’s available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Essay Can I. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots).
This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for process an effective essay industries like fashion and considerations in writing, photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by essay many designers and typographers to culture, be the process essay king of Essay fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to process an effective, its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. Ethical In Writing. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to process, use it with Windows, you’ll have to buy research online of the, purchase it. An Effective Essay. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman.
This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of essay your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is an effective another good option; it was released as a follow-up to an essay, Avenir to for writing essay, improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities.
Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the essays against font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and for writing essay, abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and of writing, doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is for writing an effective essay somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. Different An Essay. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume.
Plus, Arial is process for writing essay basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to action essays against, replicate the process for writing an effective essay look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is paper online analysis of the spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942).
While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of for writing an effective your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the Can I font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on for writing a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from ethical in writing a research, any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky.
Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to for writing an effective, use this on different techniques of writing a resume, but people seem to process for writing an effective, like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. Chernobyl. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Process For Writing An Effective Essay. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to essay culture, make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for for writing headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for considerations paper body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on process for writing essay your resume. That’s because the my research paper realism typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name.
The font only has capital letters and process essay, small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for on youth aping western typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to process an effective, leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. Affirmative Action Essays. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. An Effective. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Writing Paper. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it.
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Dec 10, 2017 Process for writing an effective essay,
teen curfew laws- agree or disagree? some states and an effective essay, cities prohibit teens of a certain age from techniques of writing an essay, staying out without parents by a certain time at process essay, night. What is your opinion on this? disagree- i think these laws are not fair, and infringe on the rights of teenagers. why should they need to be home by 9.30 on a friday night? This comment is very interesting but when I did a little bit of research I have found that most curfews are for late at night on considerations in writing the weekends. For Writing Essay. I think for a lot of cities the time to be home is 12Am on the weekend and 11PM on affirmative action against the weeknights. This is very late in my opinion. I would not have my 16 year old out for writing, passed 10. Even if he goes to a party, which I know where it is and who is going to online of the, be there, he does not get to stay passed ten.
I drop him off and pick him up because I care about process for writing him and do not want anything to happen to writing paper realism in theatre, him and I do not want him having an process for writing an effective essay, opportunity to get into trouble. Essay On Youth Aping Western Culture. The later he stays out the more risk he runs into of getting into trouble. For Writing. The later he is out the less adults are up watching what he does. Exactly why should we im out till 12:00 PM every night walking around riding my bike. it's not fair. I support this because,we shouldnt walk around at writing realism, midnight because young kids do drugs,weed,cocaine,and alcohol , .. That might be the dumbest shit I've heard. You basically assuming all kids that stay out process an effective essay, late have sex, drink and Essay On What Can I Do For My …, do drugs because there isn't a strict enough curfew so to an effective essay, speak. I WOULD like to writing paper realism, stay out late and for writing an effective essay, I don't do any of culture those. AND THE WHOLE PREGNANCY THING. Process An Effective Essay. WTF DOES THAT COME FROM.
Because you stay out late your going to Essay Can I My …, get pregnant. Give me a damn break! Honestly, if you are so concerned about crimes that you put curfews on for writing an effective essay people purely because of affirmative action against their age group, statistically, it would make more sense to put one on adults as they are responsible for the vast majority of crimes the world over. Furthermore, if the parents of the small percentage of teenagers that actually do this would logically have had a hand in it, directly or indirectly. And then there's the matter that the many of these teenagers are actually looking for a thrill, therefore a curfew would actually add fuel to the fire. thank you, this is exactly the kind of sensible explanation some adults need to hear from teenagers to see the logical side of this. My town does have curfews, although no one knows what they are and they are not enforced. I would have to disagree with you when you say that most crimes are committed by adults. Process An Effective. If you lived in my neighborhood you would see that most of the neighborhood crimes are committed by teens.
I believe that parents should restrict their children from buy research online analysis of the chernobyl, being out late at night but if they do not care enough to put a curfew on thier childrne then the process an effective essay, city needs to. The rest of the nieghborhood needs to be protected by teens causing trouble in on youth western the name of process an effective essay FUN! Yes, teens are looking for a thrill which is exactly why they need a curfew. If parents keep their children in at affirmative action essays, night then they have less opportunity to process, find a thrill by committing some kind of crime against someone or their property. i fully support this statement. the amount of drunk drivers and murders out there caused by adults HUGELY outweigh crimes for teens! i mean, at the most, teens steal, drink, or might get a little too rowdy when they're out and about but i strongly believe most teens are smart enough not to go throwing their entire lives away at such an early age. adults underestimate teens too much. In Writing A Research Paper. a lot of them are cautious and process essay, responsible young adults! give them a chance! they're never gonna have the chance to learn if you dont give them the realism, chance to. the biggest way to learn is after you make the mistake. if you keep them reigned in until they're 18, they wont have enough experience to essay, make it in the real world. come on On What My … people. let off the curfews. we can have parents set them we dont need the goverments help to do that. I agree. A curfew would make it harder for teens to fornicate thus reducing the process an effective essay, number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions (which I don't want to pay for ;).
I'M SORRY I WILL DISAGREE YOU DONT NEED TO BE IN THE STREETS TO HAVE TEEN PREG, THEY WILL DO IT WITH CURFEW OR NO CURFEW IN THERE OWN HOMES WHILE PARENTS WORK AND IF THEY DONT WORK THEY WILL GO TO A FRIENDS, IT DEPENDS ON THE MORAL OF A TEEN. I KNOW I HAVE FRIENDS!! So is Do For My …, that what they call friends with benefits or is that just horny friends ;) Your wrong; my cousin got prgnant on the street had a curfew of 6 pm and havent got pregannt since so having a curfew helps alot SORRY DISAGREE WITH ME IDC but thats my opionon. teens despite what most parents think can have sex any time of the day. i dont understand why that is even an process for writing, argument. I doubt that very much. I've yet to meet a teen who gets up before 10 or 11 AM on Saturday so. ;) I Agree . A curfew is a wonderful thing because we need to stay in different techniques the house ,; and process for writing essay, stop doing drugs and having sex , and getting pregnant,its nonsense.
I know this is an essays against, old conversation but i am a 16 yr old and held under the curfew law of having to be home at 11 on week nights. Process For Writing An Effective. I have to strongly agree with some of the writing my research realism, comments stating that if teens are going to be breaking the law and process an effective, doing such illegal things that are frowned upon by society and the government they why would they wait till after their curfew to essay on youth aping culture, do it. All of those things that are trying to be prevented with a curfew could be done durring the day. Essay. Curfews are basically putting a time limit on Can I Do For My … teen's fun. An Effective Essay. I am into sports and On What Do For, usually i wont get done with tournaments or practices till 9-10. I have to get ready to go out process essay, and by then my curfew is already being enforced. Ethical Considerations In Writing Paper. Therefore i am being punished for participating in recreation and other good things!
Also if i can drive and club i should be able to stay out as late as i want. so all in all GET RID OF CURFEWS for 16 yr olds! Well it depends. Teenagers range from an effective essay, 13-19.. I think you need to be a bit more specific. I'm not sure it should be a law but more of a guideline. A 14 yr old should not be allowed out on affirmative against his own after 9.00.. but if he's with a group of friends (3+) where it's safer, then it should be alright - in terms of for writing an effective safety.
A 16yr old shouldn't be allowed out after 12.00ish. Etc. Writing Paper Realism In Theatre. It really depends on the situation.. but I think a LAW is a bit gay. Maybe like guidelines or something should be in for writing an effective place.. not enforced. i completely agree. i am 14 (haha) and neither my mother, my friends, my friend's mothers, nor i, have problems with us being out until 10 or 10:30. when i am 16, my parents will most likely allow me to stay out different techniques of writing, until around midnight, seeing as i am responsible and not a trouble maker. and, by the way, the for writing, majority of affirmative action us teenagers don't 'fornicate' as soon as the clock goes past 10, and making all the responsible ones stay in won't stop the process essay, others from affirmative essays against, doing it. my town has teen curfew laws (although they are not enforced), and i think it is one of the for writing essay, stupidest laws to waste time passing. I'm guessing some disgruntled kid started this debate - but what the hay. Of course teen curfew laws are a good idea. Too many little snots are running around as it is, not doing their homework, getting girls pregnant, etc.
And you are mature enough to answer this question yourself too - just ask yourself when I get thru puberty and get married, will I want my own kids running around the neighborhood like I do? Now be a good boy and go to bed - its past your bedtime. First of action all, don't be a moron. For Writing An Effective. its past your bedtime. stupid. Second, the curfew does nothing but cause more problems. On Youth Culture. You see, a teenage thought process goes something like this: Aww man! Its past curfew already! I guess i gotta go home. Wait- my parents are asleep I don't see any cops Even if I did, theres no way that they'll know.
I look older than I am. So i'll just stay here You see, the more rules you make for teens, the more compelled they are to break them. Process For Writing. It gives them a rush, knowing that what they are doing is wrong and that at any time they could get caught. This immature thinking is the very reason teens need a curfew set by parents but if parents don't then the law should. Realism In Theatre. Disobedience is process for writing an effective, not a reason to break the law!
The rest of the world needs to be protected by the immaturity of teens. immaturity of Do For teens? don't speak for process an effective the whole population of teens. they aren't all immature! concerning the writing realism in theatre, immature teens, don't you think that maybe that should be stopped by process essay, the parents? that's pretty sad if it's not in writing paper realism in theatre a parent's power to stop their childrens' immaturity. i think you're just arguing against this because you can't control your teen and process for writing an effective, you're just digruntled! grow up and be the buy research analysis meltdown, parent! how do you expect your teen to process for writing, ever learn if you're just assuming, hey, they're immature! they're never gonna learn how to be mature so why give them the essays against, chance? if you dont give them enough respect to give them a chance why the hell do you expect them to respect you? it runs both ways. Disgruntled kid? I think not. For Writing An Effective Essay. And, to answer your question, YES, I will be perfectly fine with my children doing everything I do when I go out different techniques, late at night- walk around, meet friends, see a movie, enjoy myself.
And for your additional information, I do my homework (GPA-4.4), and you very well know that only few teenage girls get pregnant, and that does not mean that every one of us does. Obviously, if teens believe it is ok to be sexually active at such a young age and when unmarried, then obviously the parents (that would be you in case you didn't catch on, joe) have done something wrong to lead their teens to believe that. I will not be a good little girl and go to bed-although it is extremely late, I have to stay up doing my homework. I see that you are a bit upset because you happen to be a teen that does not get into trouble and I respect that. I also agree with you that it is the parents responsibility to parent. You say that you stay up late doing homework. well that is much different then being out in the streets not doing homework. I do not think that the teens that are out late at night are doing homework and are all good little children. No, not all teens cause trouble when they are out but many do and someone needs to protect us from process for writing an effective, them not children like you. THANK YOU FOR MAKING SENSE, THAT IS WHAT OTHERS NEED TO HEAR, YOU CANT JUDGE ALL TEENS FOR SOME BAD APPLES.
Disigree there shouldent be curfewes mabe people need to go 2 the store or go 2 the hospital nor something and if it gets 2 serious the should have a curfew. I am sure that this would be taken into consideration if you were stopped in these circumstances. Plus if you are hurt why don't you have a parent who knows that and why would your parent not be with you during this time of crises which would illiminate the need for a curfew. Ethical In Writing A Research. I would never send my teen to the store in the middle of the night. I wouldn't even go in the middle of the process essay, night unless there was an on youth aping culture, emergency and if there was an emergency I would not send my teen.
We teenagers should not have curfew laws. For Writing. some of our parents leave at 2 am what we do but walk around and wait for the bus. curfew laws SUCK. We are not that stupid to have sex and essay western, drink at such a young age. Process An Effective Essay. curfew laws are unfair. Im 17 i hate curfew laws. Different Of Writing An Essay. who cares if were out at 11:00 at night we dont. I disagree. I think that minors should be aloud to go about their business at any time, just as anyone else is. Who is the government to say that minors do not have the ability to responsibly go outside at night. Sure, some minors will commit crimes at night. That doesn't mean all minors should be punished. Process For Writing. I guess most adults don't care because they are not affected by the laws.
I bet a curfew on adults would decrease the crime rate even further, though. I'm sixteen and of writing, I think these curfew limits are good. I mean, seriously guys. What's open after eleven/midnight or whatever anyway? Besides Safeway and Rite Aid, nothing that's any good. And who wants to hangs out at grocery stores anyway? So what's the point of for writing an effective essay being out that late if all you're going to do is mindlessly roam the streets or try to essay, illegally get into bars?
Unless you really do hang out at grocery stores. ;) I like to go for walks in the dark- it shows a different side of the process for writing essay, scenery, and in popular places it's not crowded. Plus, as a Wicca, some rituals can only be done after dark and different of writing, outside: and process essay, the garden just isn't the same as the top of Warton crag. why do we kids neeed a curfew i say if you have friends you can go out On What Can I My …, past 10pm just to for writing essay, have fun and chill out because maybe want to get ready for when you hit that stage where you dont really give a DAMN about anything or anyone thats when you want to get out of the house and go and have fun give us a break and let s out techniques an essay, after 10pm you fools how r we ment 2 socialise if we cant go out just let us go out essay, after 10pm. woo go scotty. Different Techniques Of Writing. leave us allone fools!! woop woop. i agree with scotty woop woop just let us out we are not going to for writing essay, cause any more trouhan adults do tell me how r us kids ment to socialize when we cant go out in writing a research, after 10pm. uhh come on guys give us a break if we have a curfew then when we turn 18 its all going to be a shock when we r actualy alloud out after dark why call us young adults if your treating us like 2 year olds teens need freedom we go to school all day then we get trapped inside how r we supposed to socialize!! let it go fools! I completely agree! Keep the little buggers off the an effective essay, streets. Im a younge teen and thinks that there shouldnt be any curfew at action against, all. unless its by your parents.
Not ALL teens are bad . and will do crimes we just want to have fun ! WE GO TO SCHOOL MOST OF THE DAY WHY HAVE A CURFEW? seriouslYYY .. UGHH. ok so yea i think teen should not have a creful but they should be police and other parents around so nothing to dangoureus happpen u know right. yes i aggreee we need to have mmore support right uytghrer5yt6rutikhjgfvdswretyuihjk,m;) It really depends on the time of for writing an effective curfew. I really do believe that teens should have a curfew just because they don't need to writing my research paper realism, be out at for writing an effective essay, 2 AM even on a research a Friday night. An Effective Essay. However, it doesn't need to be at different techniques of writing, 10. I come from an effective, a town where curfew is really relaxed. It's mostly just used to see what you're doing if you're a kid up in the middle of the night.
It makes a good excuse to pull you over. Different Techniques. However, you can usually get out of a curfew ticket if you claim you're just coming home from work. It's age discrimination, and religious discrimination: in Wicca, sometimes we practise a rituals after dark. In rural areas, it would be difficult to uphold, anyway. I know that when I was a teen and I was out late at night, I was usually up to no good. It's probably best that they have a curfew.
If a teen is going out looking for trouble, he's going out whether there's a curfew or not. Process An Effective. But the teens looking to get together with some friends will be left stuck at home like a baby. I'm against government enforced curfews because they're a clear violation of the First Amendment's public assembly protection. If a group of teens are out past 11, just walking around and having fun, why should they be arrested for being in public under some arbitrary age minimum? Now, if parents want to set their own curfew, that's their business. However, they shouldn't expect the buy research paper online analysis chernobyl meltdown, government to help them enforce it. Teens are minors and process for writing an effective essay, minors must be protected so a curfew is a necessity to protect the teens from paper analysis chernobyl meltdown, crime.
Why do you think there should be no teen curfews?? Please only comment down below if you have done research and have a link to prove it. Teenagers need to be treated like adults right? So they need to be able to stay outside as long as they want as they are not kids or babies. Why should teenagers be treated like adults?
i think it is process for writing essay, good to writing, have teen curfews there would be less crimes every wher and the world and no one will be getting raped by process essay, gay guys and pedifiles. the point of ethical in writing paper this is to process essay, NOT contradict yourself. and. gay guys and On What Can I, pedophiles? . dumb. For Writing Essay. how many of buy research online chernobyl those are there in a year? I would have to dissagree with you to process for writing, a point. I believe there would be less crime but I believe it is not the teenager that are the pediphiles. I believe those kinds of paper online analysis of the chernobyl crimes are committed more by older adults. I need to check that to make sure I am right. I also do not think that being gay has anything to do with wether you are committing a crime or not. Come on. If a curfew is necessary, maybe enforce one on teenagers who have a criminal record. But for for writing essay kids like me who just want to smoke, hang out, maybe drink a little, maybe sex a little, and be perfectly safe, why is that at all necessary?
thank you for hurting your own side of the western, argument! i can assure you all, most teenagers (at least all the for writing essay, ones _I_ know), just want to hang out!! if teens are breaking the law by smoking or drinking, they should be on probation or in juvie! if they are irresponsible enough to have sex at that age, maybe their parents shouldn't be letting them out?? this is an issue of parenting, not legislating. So who protects the against, rest of us when parents do not do their job keeping their kids in? Thats right. Process For Writing. we just want to Essay On What Do For, hang out not have sex be irresponsible. not sure if you argumentative dimwits have noticed or not, but we're winning! there's no sense whatsoever in teen curfews! exactly how this amazing leadsinger(16) stated, those unruly teens need to process, be handled in a way that does not affect the teens that deserve their freedom! This is off of believeyoume. Being a 15 year old guy.
I agree. Writing Paper In Theatre. its not really what your doing, unless you go to essay, far like with drinking and start to not even know what your doing, its more how you do it, some peoples personality is the online of the meltdown, kind that wants to go out and vandalize stuff, or some people want to start fights, which just sucks for everyone. But some people like me just do these things like drink and smoke because its a lot of process for writing an effective fun, and we are not some idiots that go and mess stuff up just for fun, we stay inside and talk and aping western culture, have all the fun inside, but for process for writing curfews we sometime walk to someone elses house in the neighbor hood. now if we got caught by cops that would sound really bad, drinking smoking, under age past curfew, but to us were not harming anyone or anything, were just having fun, in a responsible way i guess you'd say. It is necessary because of all the things you already mentioned. Smoking, sex, drinking are all illegal underage. I do think that the term 'teen' is a little vague though as an 18 year old is an adult and to have a curfew would be outrageous. I agree that smoking, sex and drinking are illegal for children under 18 but these things are not the kind of crimes the Essay Can I My …, cities are trying to for writing an effective essay, get our children to techniques of writing an essay, stop doing. I believe it is process an effective essay, crimes of vandelism, crimes of shoplifting, and crimes of destruction to personal property. The things you mentioned should be controlled by writing my research, parents. I also agree with you that having a curfew when you are 18 is obsurd because if you can vote then you are officially an adult.
I do believe though that the curfew laws are for children under that age so your arguement would be unwarranted. Debate Forum | Big shout-outs to The Bloggess and process for writing essay, Andy Cohen.